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Concepts from Thermodynamics | |

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Introduction | |

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Thermodynamic Systems | |

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Variables of State | |

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The First Principal Law | |

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Irreversible and Reversible Processes | |

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Perfect Gases | |

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The First Law Applied to Reversible Processes. Specific Heats | |

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The First Law Applied to Irreversible Processes | |

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The Concept of Entropy. The Second Law | |

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The Canonical Equation of State. Free Energy and Free Enthalpy | |

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Reciprocity Relations | |

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Entropy and Transport Processes | |

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Equilibrium Conditions | |

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Mixtures of Perfect Gases | |

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The Law of Mass Action | |

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Dissociation | |

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Condensation | |

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Real Gases in Gasdynamics | |

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One-Dimensional Gasdynamics | |

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Introduction | |

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The Continuity Equation | |

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The Energy Equation | |

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Reservoir Conditions | |

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Euler's Equation | |

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The Momentum Equation | |

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Isentropic Conditions | |

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Speed of Sound; Mach Number | |

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The Area-Velocity Relation | |

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Results from the Energy Equation | |

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Bernoulli Equation; Dynamic Pressure | |

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Flow at Constant Area | |

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The Normal Shock Relations for a Perfect Gas | |

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One-Dimensional Wave Motion | |

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Introduction | |

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The Propagating Shock Wave | |

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One-Dimensional Isentropic Equations | |

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The Acoustic Equations | |

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Propagation of Acoustic Waves | |

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The Speed of Sound | |

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Pressure and Particle Velocity in a Sound Wave | |

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"Linearized" Shock Tube | |

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Isentropic Waves of Finite Amplitude | |

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Propagation of Finite Waves | |

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Centered Expansion Wave | |

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The Shock Tube | |

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Waves in Supersonic Flow | |

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Introduction | |

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Oblique Shock Waves | |

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Relation Between [beta] and [theta] | |

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Supersonic Flow over a Wedge | |

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Mach Lines | |

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Piston Analogy | |

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Weak Oblique Shocks | |

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Supersonic Compression by Turning | |

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Supersonic Expansion by Turning | |

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The Prandtl-Meyer Function | |

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Simple and Nonsimple Regions | |

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Reflection and Intersection of Oblique Shocks | |

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Intersection of Shocks of the Same Family | |

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Detached Shocks | |

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Mach Reflection | |

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Shock-Expansion Theory | |

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Thin Airfoil Theory | |

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Flat Lifting Wings | |

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Drag Reduction | |

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The Hodograph Plane | |

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Cone in Supersonic Flow | |

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Flow in Ducts and Wind Tunnels | |

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Introduction | |

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Flow in Channel of Varying Area | |

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Area Relations | |

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Nozzle Flow | |

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Normal Shock Recovery | |

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Effects of Second Throat | |

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Actual Performance of Wind Tunnel Diffusers | |

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Wind Tunnel Pressure Ratio | |

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Supersonic Wind Tunnels | |

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Wind Tunnel Characteristics | |

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Compressor Matching | |

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Other Wind Tunnels and Testing Methods | |

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Methods of Measurement | |

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Introduction | |

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Static Pressure | |

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Total Pressure | |

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Mach Number from Pressure Measurements | |

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Wedge and Cone Measurements | |

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Velocity | |

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Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements | |

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Density Measurements | |

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Index of Refraction | |

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Schlieren System | |

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The Knife Edge | |

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Some Practical Considerations | |

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The Shadow Method | |

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Interference Method | |

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Mach-Zehnder Interferometer | |

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Interferometer Techniques | |

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X-Ray Absorption and Other Methods | |

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Direct Measurement of Skin Friction | |

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Hot-Wire Probe | |

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Shock Tube Instrumentation | |

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The Equations of Frictionless Flow | |

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Introduction | |

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Notation | |

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The Equation of Continuity | |

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The Momentum Equation | |

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The Energy Equation | |

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The Eulerian Derivative | |

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Splitting the Energy Equation | |

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The Total Enthalpy | |

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Natural Coordinates. Crocco's Theorem | |

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Relation of Vorticity to Circulation and Rotation | |

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The Velocity Potential | |

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Irrotational Flow | |

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Remarks on the Equations of Motion | |

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Small-Perturbation Theory | |

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Introduction | |

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Derivation of the Pertubation Equations | |

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Pressure Coefficient | |

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Boundary Conditions | |

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Two-Dimensional Flow Past a Wave-Shaped Wall | |

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Wavy Wall in Supersonic Flow | |

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Supersonic Thin Airfoil Theory | |

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Planar Flows | |

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Bodies of Revolution. Slender Body Theory | |

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Introduction | |

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Cylindrical Coordinates | |

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Boundary Conditions | |

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Pressure Coefficient | |

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Axially Symmetric Flow | |

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Subsonic Flow | |

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Supersonic Flow | |

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Velocities in the Supersonic Field | |

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Solution for A Cone | |

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Other Meridian Shapes | |

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Solution for Slender Cone | |

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Slender Body Drag | |

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Yawed Body of Revolution in Supersonic Flow | |

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Cross-Flow Boundary Conditions | |

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Cross-Flow Solutions | |

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Cross Flow for Slender Bodies of Revolution | |

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Lift of Slender Bodies of Revolution | |

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Slender Body Theory | |

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Rayleigh's Formula | |

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The Similarity Rules of High-Speed Flow | |

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Introduction | |

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Two-Dimensional Linearized Flow. Prandtl-Glauert and Gothert Rules | |

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Two-Dimensional Transonic Flow. von Karman's Rules | |

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Linearized Axially Symmetric Flow | |

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Planar Flow | |

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Summary and Application of the Similarity Laws | |

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High Mach Numbers. Hypersonic Similarity | |

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Transonic Flow | |

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Introduction | |

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Definition of the Transonic Range | |

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Transonic Flow Past Wedge Sections | |

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Transonic Flow Past A Cone | |

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Transonic Flow Past Smooth Two-Dimensional Shapes. The Question of Shock-Free Flow | |

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The Hodograph Transformation of the Equations | |

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The Method of Characteristics | |

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Introduction | |

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Hyperbolic Equations | |

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The Compatibility Relation | |

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The Computation Method | |

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Interior and Boundary Points | |

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Axially Symmetric Flow | |

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Nonisentropic Flow | |

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Theorems about Plane Flow | |

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Computation with Weak, Finite Waves | |

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Interaction of Waves | |

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Design of Supersonic Nozzles | |

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Comparison of Characteristics and Waves | |

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Effects of Viscosity and Conductivity | |

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Introduction | |

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Couette Flow | |

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Recovery Temperature | |

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Velocity Distribution in Couette Flow | |

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Rayleigh's Problem. The Diffusion of Vorticity | |

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The Boundary-Layer Concept | |

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Prandtl's Equations for a Flat Plate | |

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Characteristic Results from the Boundary-Layer Equation | |

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The Displacement Effect of the Boundary Layer. Momentum and Energy Integrals | |

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Change of Variables | |

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Boundary Layers on Profiles Other than a Flat Plate | |

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Flow through a Shock Wave | |

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The Navier-Stokes Equations | |

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The Turbulent Boundary Layer | |

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Boundary-Layer Effects on the External Flow Field | |

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Shock-Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction | |

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Turbulence | |

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Couette Flow of a Dissociating Gas | |

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Concepts from Gaskinetics | |

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Introduction | |

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Probability Concepts | |

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Distribution Functions | |

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The Virial Theorem of Clausius | |

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The Equation of State of a Perfect Gas | |

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The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution | |

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The Specific Heats of Gases | |

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Molecular Collisions. Mean Free Path and Relaxation Times | |

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Shear Viscosity and Heat Conduction | |

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Couette Flow of a Highly Rarefied Gas | |

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The Concepts of Slip and Accommodation | |

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Relaxation Effects of the Internal Degrees of Freedom | |

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The Limit of Continuum Theory | |

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Exercises | |

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Selected References | |

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Tables | |

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Critical Data and Characteristic Temperatures for Several Gases | |

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Flow Parameters versus M for Subsonic Flow | |

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Flow Parameters versus M for Supersonic Flow | |

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Parameters for Shock Flow | |

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Mach Number and Mach Angle versus Prandtl-Meyer Function | |

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Charts | |

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Oblique Shock Chart | |

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Oblique Shock Chart | |

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Appendix | |

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Index | |