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Nuclear Physics Principles and Applications

ISBN-10: 0471979368
ISBN-13: 9780471979364
Edition: 2001
Authors: John Lilley
List price: $67.00
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Description: This work presents students with a textbook in nuclear physics, based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. It provides straight forward extensive mathematical treatments and covers the basic theory, emphasising the important  More...

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Book details

List price: $67.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/8/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 412
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.386
Language: English

This work presents students with a textbook in nuclear physics, based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. It provides straight forward extensive mathematical treatments and covers the basic theory, emphasising the important applications.

Flow diagram
Editors' preface to the Manchester Physics Series
Author's preface
Principles
Introduction and Basic Concepts
Introduction
Early Discoveries
Basic Facts and Definitions
The nucleus and its constituents
Isotopes, isotones and isobars
Nuclear mass and energy
Nuclear Potential and Energy Levels
Nucleon states in a nucleus
Energy levels of nuclei
Occurrence and stability of nuclei
Radioactivity and Radioactive Decay
Alpha emission
Beta emission and electron capture
Gamma emission and internal conversion
Rate of radioactive decay
Radioactive decay chains
Radioactivity in the environment
Radioactive dating
Nuclear Collisions
Nomenclature
Probes
Cross section, differential cross section and reaction rate
Isotope production
Examples of nuclear reactions
Problems I
Nuclear Structure
Introduction
Nuclear Mass
The nuclear force
Semi-empirical mass formula
Nuclear stability
Nuclear Shell Model
Evidence for shell structure
Independent particle motion and the shell model
The spin--orbit potential
Single-Particle Features
Parity
Spectra of single-particle or single-hole nuclei
Collective States
Vibrational states
Deformed nuclei
Rotational states
Superdeformation
Problems 2
Nuclear Instability
Introduction
Gamma Emission
General features and selection rules
Transition rate
Internal conversion
Beta Decay
Beta-particle energy spectrum
Allowed transitions
Forbidden transitions
Comparison of [beta]-decay rates
Electron capture
Alpha Decay
Semi-classical theory of [alpha] decay
Alpha-particle energies and selection rules
Transuranic nuclei
Problems 3
Nuclear Reactions
Introduction
General Features of Nuclear Reactions
Energy spectra
Angular distributions
Cross sections
Elastic Scattering and Nuclear Size
Electron scattering
Optical model for nuclear scattering
Direct Reactions
Angular momentum transfer in direct reactions
Selectivity in direct reactions
Compound Nucleus Reactions
Resonance in a compound nuclear reaction
Low-energy, neutron-induced fission
Heavy-Ion Reactions
Elastic scattering and direct reactions
Fusion
Deep inelastic reactions and limits to fusion
Problems 4
Instrumentation and Applications
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
Introduction
Heavy Charged Particles
Bethe-Bloch formula
Energy dependence
Bragg curve
Projectile dependence
Stopping medium dependence
Electrons
Gamma Rays
Photoelectric effect
Compton scattering
Pair production
Attenuation
Neutrons
Attenuation
Neutron moderation
Problems 5
Detectors and Instrumentation
Introduction
Gas Detectors
Ionization chamber
Proportional counter
Geiger-Mueller counter
Scintillation Detectors
Semiconductor Detectors
The p-n junction detector
The intrinsic detector
Detector Performance for Gamma Rays
Response to monoenergetic photons
Energy resolution
Peak-to-total ratio
Neutron Detectors
Slow-neutron detection
Fast-neutron detection
Particle Identification
E--[delta]E counter telescope
Time of flight
Magnetic analysis
Accelerators
DC machines
AC machines
Problems 6
Biological Effects of Radiation
Introduction
Initial Interactions
Direct and indirect physical damage
Indirect chemical damage
Dose, Dose Rate and Dose Distribution
Absorbed dose
Dose rate
Dose distribution and relative biological effectiveness
Equivalent dose
Effective dose
Damage to Critical Tissue
Complex molecules
Nucleic acids and damage repair
Modifying factors
Human Exposure to Radiation
Radiation in the environment
Evaluating the dose
Risk Assessment
Risk to occupationally exposed workers
Problems 7
Industrial and Analytical Applications
Introduction
Industrial Uses
Tracing
Gauging
Material modification
Sterilization
Food preservation
Other applications
Neutron Activation Analysis
Rutherford Backscattering
Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Significance of Low-Level Counting
Null measurements with zero background
Low-level counting with finite background
Problems 8
Nuclear Medicine
Introduction
Projection Imaging: X-Radiography and the Gamma Camera
Imaging with external radiation
Imaging with internal radiation
Computed Tomography
Positron Emission Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Principles of MRI
Excitation of a selected region
Readout and MRI image formation
Time variations of the signal
Functional MRI
Radiation Therapy
Photons and electrons
Radionuclides
Neutron therapy
Heavy charged particles
Problems 9
Power From Fission
Introduction
Characteristics of Fission
Fission and fission products
Fission energy budget
Delayed neutrons
Neutron interactions
Breeder reactions
The Chain Reaction in a Thermal Fission Reactor
A nuclear power plant
The neutron cycle in a thermal reactor
Moderator
Optimizing the design
The Finite Reactor
Diffusion
The continuity equation
Diffusion length
Reactor equation
Solving the reactor equation
Reactor Operation
Reactor power and fuel consumption
Reactor kinetics
Reactor poisoning
Commercial Thermal Reactors
Early gas-cooled reactors
Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR)
Pressurized-water reactor
Boiling-water reactor
Heavy-water reactors
Future of Nuclear Fission Power
The breeder reactor
Accelerator-driven systems
Problems 10
Thermonuclear Fusion
Introduction
Thermonuclear Reactions and Energy Production
Basic reactions and Q values
Cross sections
Fusion in a Hot Medium
Reaction rate
Performance criteria
Progress Towards Fusion Power
Magnetic confinement
Inertial confinement fusion
Fusion in the Early Universe
Stellar Burning
Hydrogen burning
Helium burning
Beyond helium burning
Nucleosynthesis Beyond A [approximate] 60
Problems 11
Useful Information
Physical Constants and Derived Quantities
Masses and Energies
Conversion Factors
Useful Formulae
Particle in a Square Well
Density of States and the Fermi Energy
Density of States
Fermi Energy
Spherical Harmonics
Coulomb Scattering
Mass Excesses and Decay Properties of Nuclei
Answers and Hints to Problems
References
Bibliography
Index

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