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Flow diagram | |

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Editors' preface to the Manchester Physics Series | |

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Author's preface | |

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Principles | |

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Introduction and Basic Concepts | |

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Introduction | |

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Early Discoveries | |

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Basic Facts and Definitions | |

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The nucleus and its constituents | |

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Isotopes, isotones and isobars | |

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Nuclear mass and energy | |

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Nuclear Potential and Energy Levels | |

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Nucleon states in a nucleus | |

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Energy levels of nuclei | |

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Occurrence and stability of nuclei | |

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Radioactivity and Radioactive Decay | |

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Alpha emission | |

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Beta emission and electron capture | |

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Gamma emission and internal conversion | |

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Rate of radioactive decay | |

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Radioactive decay chains | |

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Radioactivity in the environment | |

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Radioactive dating | |

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Nuclear Collisions | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Probes | |

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Cross section, differential cross section and reaction rate | |

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Isotope production | |

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Examples of nuclear reactions | |

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Problems I | |

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Nuclear Structure | |

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Introduction | |

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Nuclear Mass | |

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The nuclear force | |

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Semi-empirical mass formula | |

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Nuclear stability | |

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Nuclear Shell Model | |

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Evidence for shell structure | |

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Independent particle motion and the shell model | |

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The spin--orbit potential | |

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Single-Particle Features | |

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Parity | |

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Spectra of single-particle or single-hole nuclei | |

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Collective States | |

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Vibrational states | |

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Deformed nuclei | |

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Rotational states | |

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Superdeformation | |

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Problems 2 | |

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Nuclear Instability | |

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Introduction | |

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Gamma Emission | |

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General features and selection rules | |

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Transition rate | |

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Internal conversion | |

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Beta Decay | |

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Beta-particle energy spectrum | |

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Allowed transitions | |

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Forbidden transitions | |

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Comparison of [beta]-decay rates | |

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Electron capture | |

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Alpha Decay | |

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Semi-classical theory of [alpha] decay | |

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Alpha-particle energies and selection rules | |

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Transuranic nuclei | |

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Problems 3 | |

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Nuclear Reactions | |

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Introduction | |

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General Features of Nuclear Reactions | |

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Energy spectra | |

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Angular distributions | |

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Cross sections | |

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Elastic Scattering and Nuclear Size | |

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Electron scattering | |

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Optical model for nuclear scattering | |

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Direct Reactions | |

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Angular momentum transfer in direct reactions | |

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Selectivity in direct reactions | |

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Compound Nucleus Reactions | |

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Resonance in a compound nuclear reaction | |

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Low-energy, neutron-induced fission | |

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Heavy-Ion Reactions | |

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Elastic scattering and direct reactions | |

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Fusion | |

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Deep inelastic reactions and limits to fusion | |

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Problems 4 | |

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Instrumentation and Applications | |

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Interaction of Radiation with Matter | |

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Introduction | |

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Heavy Charged Particles | |

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Bethe-Bloch formula | |

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Energy dependence | |

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Bragg curve | |

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Projectile dependence | |

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Stopping medium dependence | |

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Electrons | |

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Gamma Rays | |

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Photoelectric effect | |

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Compton scattering | |

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Pair production | |

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Attenuation | |

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Neutrons | |

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Attenuation | |

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Neutron moderation | |

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Problems 5 | |

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Detectors and Instrumentation | |

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Introduction | |

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Gas Detectors | |

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Ionization chamber | |

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Proportional counter | |

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Geiger-Mueller counter | |

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Scintillation Detectors | |

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Semiconductor Detectors | |

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The p-n junction detector | |

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The intrinsic detector | |

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Detector Performance for Gamma Rays | |

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Response to monoenergetic photons | |

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Energy resolution | |

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Peak-to-total ratio | |

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Neutron Detectors | |

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Slow-neutron detection | |

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Fast-neutron detection | |

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Particle Identification | |

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E--[delta]E counter telescope | |

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Time of flight | |

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Magnetic analysis | |

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Accelerators | |

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DC machines | |

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AC machines | |

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Problems 6 | |

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Biological Effects of Radiation | |

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Introduction | |

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Initial Interactions | |

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Direct and indirect physical damage | |

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Indirect chemical damage | |

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Dose, Dose Rate and Dose Distribution | |

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Absorbed dose | |

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Dose rate | |

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Dose distribution and relative biological effectiveness | |

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Equivalent dose | |

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Effective dose | |

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Damage to Critical Tissue | |

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Complex molecules | |

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Nucleic acids and damage repair | |

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Modifying factors | |

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Human Exposure to Radiation | |

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Radiation in the environment | |

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Evaluating the dose | |

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Risk Assessment | |

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Risk to occupationally exposed workers | |

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Problems 7 | |

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Industrial and Analytical Applications | |

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Introduction | |

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Industrial Uses | |

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Tracing | |

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Gauging | |

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Material modification | |

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Sterilization | |

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Food preservation | |

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Other applications | |

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Neutron Activation Analysis | |

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Rutherford Backscattering | |

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Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission | |

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Accelerator Mass Spectrometry | |

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Significance of Low-Level Counting | |

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Null measurements with zero background | |

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Low-level counting with finite background | |

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Problems 8 | |

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Nuclear Medicine | |

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Introduction | |

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Projection Imaging: X-Radiography and the Gamma Camera | |

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Imaging with external radiation | |

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Imaging with internal radiation | |

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Computed Tomography | |

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Positron Emission Tomography | |

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging | |

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Principles of MRI | |

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Excitation of a selected region | |

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Readout and MRI image formation | |

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Time variations of the signal | |

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Functional MRI | |

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Radiation Therapy | |

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Photons and electrons | |

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Radionuclides | |

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Neutron therapy | |

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Heavy charged particles | |

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Problems 9 | |

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Power From Fission | |

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Introduction | |

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Characteristics of Fission | |

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Fission and fission products | |

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Fission energy budget | |

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Delayed neutrons | |

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Neutron interactions | |

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Breeder reactions | |

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The Chain Reaction in a Thermal Fission Reactor | |

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A nuclear power plant | |

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The neutron cycle in a thermal reactor | |

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Moderator | |

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Optimizing the design | |

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The Finite Reactor | |

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Diffusion | |

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The continuity equation | |

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Diffusion length | |

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Reactor equation | |

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Solving the reactor equation | |

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Reactor Operation | |

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Reactor power and fuel consumption | |

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Reactor kinetics | |

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Reactor poisoning | |

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Commercial Thermal Reactors | |

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Early gas-cooled reactors | |

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Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) | |

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Pressurized-water reactor | |

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Boiling-water reactor | |

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Heavy-water reactors | |

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Future of Nuclear Fission Power | |

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The breeder reactor | |

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Accelerator-driven systems | |

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Problems 10 | |

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Thermonuclear Fusion | |

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Introduction | |

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Thermonuclear Reactions and Energy Production | |

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Basic reactions and Q values | |

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Cross sections | |

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Fusion in a Hot Medium | |

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Reaction rate | |

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Performance criteria | |

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Progress Towards Fusion Power | |

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Magnetic confinement | |

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Inertial confinement fusion | |

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Fusion in the Early Universe | |

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Stellar Burning | |

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Hydrogen burning | |

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Helium burning | |

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Beyond helium burning | |

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Nucleosynthesis Beyond A [approximate] 60 | |

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Problems 11 | |

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Useful Information | |

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Physical Constants and Derived Quantities | |

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Masses and Energies | |

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Conversion Factors | |

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Useful Formulae | |

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Particle in a Square Well | |

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Density of States and the Fermi Energy | |

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Density of States | |

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Fermi Energy | |

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Spherical Harmonics | |

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Coulomb Scattering | |

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Mass Excesses and Decay Properties of Nuclei | |

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Answers and Hints to Problems | |

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References | |

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Bibliography | |

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Index | |