Introduction to Psychology

ISBN-10: 0471767964
ISBN-13: 9780471767961
Edition: 2008
List price: $133.95
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Description: This text provides a new, visually-oriented look into the field of psychology. Rather than offering an encyclopedic printed text, Visualizing Psychology presents a straightforward, logically intuitive approach to the subject. With the help of  More...

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Book details

List price: $133.95
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/22/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 9.00" wide x 11.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.498
Language: English

This text provides a new, visually-oriented look into the field of psychology. Rather than offering an encyclopedic printed text, Visualizing Psychology presents a straightforward, logically intuitive approach to the subject. With the help of illustrations and graphics, the book brings complex concepts to life. Huffman also uses a user-friendly approach to engage the reader.

Introduction and Research Methods
Introducing Psychology
What Is Psychology?
Origins of Psychology
A Brief History: Psychology's Intellectual Roots
What a Scientist Sees: The Biopsychosocial Model
Women and Minorities in Psychology
The Science of Psychology
The Scientific Method: A Way of Discovering
Ethical Guidelines: Protecting the Rights of Others
Research Methods
Experimental Research: A Search for Cause and Effect
Descriptive Research: Naturalistic Observation, Surveys, and Case Studies
Correlational Research: Looking for Relationships
Biological Research: Tools for Exploring the Brain and Nervous System
Getting the Most from Your Study of Psychology
Familiarization
Active Reading
Visual Learning
With Your Own Eyes: Improving Your Grade
Time Management
Distributed Study
Overlearning
Neuroscience and Biological Foundations
Our Genetic Inheritance
Behavioral Genetics: Is It Nature or Nurture?
Evolutionary Psychology: Darwin Explains Behavior and Mental Processes
Neural Bases of Behavior
How Do Neurons Communicate?
What a Scientist Sees: How Poisons and Drugs Affect Our Brain
Hormones: A Global Communication System
Nervous System Organization
Central Nervous System (CNS): The Brain and Spinal Cord
With Your Own Eyes: Infant Reflexes
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Connecting the CNS to the Rest of the Body
What a Scientist Sees: Sexual Arousal
A Tour Through the Brain
Lower-Level Brain Structures: The Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Parts of the Forebrain
The Cerebral Cortex: The Center of "Higher" Processing
Two Brains in One? A House Divided
Stress and Health Psychology
Understanding Stress
Sources of Stress
How Stress Affects the Body
Stress and Illness
Cancer: A Variety of Causes-Even Stress
Cardiovascular Disorders: The Leading Cause of Death in the United States
What a Scientist Sees: Type A Personality and Hostility
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Disease of Modern Times?
Gastric Ulcers: Are They Caused by Stress?
Health Psychology in Action
Tobacco: Hazardous to Your Health
Alcohol: A Personal and Social Health Problem
With Your Own Eyes: Do You Have an Alcohol Problem?
Chronic Pain: An Ongoing Threat to Health
Health and Stress Management
Coping with Stress
Resources for Healthy Living: From Good Health to Money
Sensation and Perception
Understanding Sensation
Processing: Detection and Conversion
Adaptation: Weakening the Response
How We See and Hear
Waves of Light and Sound
Vision: The Eyes Have It
Hearing: A Sound Sensation
Our Other Senses
Smell and Taste: Sensing Chemicals
The Body Senses: More than Just Touch
Understanding Perception
Selection: Extracting Important Messages
With Your Own Eyes: Illusions
Organization: Form, Constancy, Depth, and Color
What a Scientist Sees: Perceptual Constancies
With Your Own Eyes: Color Aftereffects
Interpretation: Explaining Our Perceptions
States of Consciousness
Consciousness, Sleep, and Dreaming
With Your Own Eyes: Are You Sleep Deprived?
Stages of Sleep: How Scientists Study Sleep
Sleep Disorders: When Sleep Becomes a Problem
Psychoactive Drugs
Psychoactive Drugs: Four Categories
Altering Consciousness Through Meditation and Hypnosis
Meditation: A Healthy "High"
What a Scientist Sees: Meditation and the Brain
Hypnosis: Uses and Myths
Learning
Classical Conditioning
The Beginnings of Classical Conditioning
Fine-Tuning Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
The Beginnings of Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement: Strengthening a Response
What a Scientist Sees: Partial Reinforcement Keeps 'em Coming Back
Punishment: Weakening a Response
Cognitive-Social Learning
Insight and Latent Learning: Where Are the Reinforcers?
Observational Learning: What We See Is What We Do
The Biology of Learning
Neuroscience and Learning: The Adaptive Brain
Evolution and Learning: Biological Preparedness and Instinctive Drift
Conditioning and Learning in Everyday Life
Classical Conditioning: From Prejudice to Phobias
With Your Own Eyes: Classical Conditioning as a Marketing Tool
Operant Conditioning: Prejudice, Biofeedback, and Superstition
Cognitive-Social Learning: We See, We Do?
Memory
The Nature of Memory
Four Models of Memory: An Overview
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
What a Scientist Sees: Chunking in Chess
Long-Term Memory
Improving Long-Term Memory: Organization, Rehearsal, Retrieval
Biological Bases of Memory
Neuronal and Synaptic Changes in Memory
Hormonal Changes and Memory
Where Are Memories Located?
Biological Causes of Memory Loss: Injury and Disease
Forgetting
Theories of Forgetting
Factors Involved in Forgetting
Memory Distortions
With Your Own Eyes: A Memory Test
Memory and Eyewitness Testimony
Repressed Memories
With Your Own Eyes: Tips for Memory Improvement
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Thinking
The Thinking Brain: Making Connections
Cognitive Building Blocks
Solving Problems
Barriers to Problem Solving
Creativity: Finding Unique Solutions
With Your Own Eyes: Are You Creative?
Language
What Is Language?
Language and Thought: A Complex Interaction
Language Development: From Crying to Talking
Can Humans Talk to Nonhuman Animals?
Intelligence
Do We Have One or Many Intelligences?
Measuring Intelligence?
The Intelligence Controversy
Extremes in Intelligence: Mental Retardation and Giftedness
The Brain's Influence on Intelligence
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
What a Scientist Sees: Family Studies of Intelligence
Ethnicity and Intelligence: Are IQ Tests Culturally Biased?
Life Span Development I
Studying Development
Theoretical Issues: Ongoing Debates
Research Methods: Two Basic Approaches
Physical Development
Prenatal and Early Childhood: A Time of Rapid Change
What a Scientist Sees: How an Infant Perceives the World
Adolescence and Adulthood: A Time of Both Dramatic and Gradual Change
Cognitive Development
Stages of Cognitive Development: Birth to Adolescence
With Your Own Eyes: Putting Piaget to the Test
Assessing Piaget's Theory: Criticisms and Contributions
Life Span Development II
Social, Moral, and Personality Development
Social Development: The Importance of Attachment
What a Scientist Sees: Attachment: The Power of Touch
Moral Development: Kohlberg's Stages
Personality Development: Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
How Sex, Gender, and Culture Affect Development
Sex and Gender Influences on Development
Cultural Influences on Development
Developmental Challenges Through Adulthood
Committed Relationships: Overcoming Unrealistic Expectations
With Your Own Eyes: Are Your Relationship Expectations Realistic?
Work and Retirement: How They Affect Us?
Death and Dying: Our Final Developmental Crisis
Motivation and Emotion
Theories and Concepts of Motivation
Biological Theories: Looking for Internal "Whys" of Behavior
With Your Own Eyes: Sensation Seeking
Psychosocial Theories: Incentives and Cognitions
Biopsychosocial Theories: Interactionism Once Again
Motivation and Behavior
Hunger and Eating: Multiple Factors
Achievement: The Need for Success
Sexuality: The World's Most Powerful Motive?
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation: Is One Better than the Other?
Theories and Concepts of Emotion
Three Components of Emotion
Four Major Theories of Emotion
Culture, Evolution, and Emotion
What a Scientist Sees: Polygraph testing
Personality
Trait Theories
Early Trait Theorists
The Five-Factor Model: Five Basic Personality Traits
With Your Own Eyes: Love and the "Big Five"
Evaluating Trait Theories
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: The Power of the Unconscious
Neo-Freudian/Psychodynamic Theories: Revising Freud's Ideas
Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories: Criticisms and Enduring Influence
Humanistic Theories
Roger's Theory: The Importance of the Self
What a Scientist Sees: Congruence, Mental Health, and Self-Esteem
Maslow's Theory: The Search for Self-Actualization
Evaluating Humanistic Theories: Three Major Criticisms
Social-Cognitive Theories
Bandura's and Rotter's Approaches: Social Learning Plus Cognitive Processes
Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theory: The Pluses and Minuses
Biological Theories
Three Major Contributors to Personality: The Brain, Neurochemistry, and Genetics
The Biopsychosocial Model: Pulling the Perspectives Together
Personality Assessment
Interviews and Observation
Objective Tests
Projective Tests
Are Personality Measurements Accurate?
Psychological Disorders
Studying Psychological Disorders
Identifying Abnormal Behavior: Four Basic Standards
Explaining Abnormality: From Superstition to Science
Classifying Abnormal Behavior: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV-TR
What a Scientist Sees: Seven Psychological Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Anxiety Disorders
Four Major Anxiety Disorders: The Problem of Fear
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Understanding Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
Causes of Mood Disorders: Biological versus Psychosocial Factors
Schizophrenia
Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Five Areas of Disturbance
Types of Schizophrenia: Recent Methods of Classification
Causes of Schizophrenia: Nature and Nurture Theories
Other Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Dissociative Disorders: When the Personality Splits Apart
Personality Disorders: Antisocial and Borderline
How Gender and Culture Affect Abnormal Behavior
Gender and Depression: Why Are Women More Depressed?
Culture and Schizophrenia: Differences Around the World
Avoiding Ethnocentrism
Therapy
Insight Therapies
Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Therapies: Unlocking the Secrets of the Unconscious
Cognitive Therapies: A Focus on Faulty Thoughts and Beliefs
Humanistic Therapies: Blocked Personal Growth
With Your Own Eyes: Client-Centered Therapy in Action
Group, Family, and Marital Therapies: Healing Interpersonal Relationships
Behavior Therapies
Classical Conditioning Techniques
Operant Conditioning Techniques
Observational Learning Techniques
Evaluating Behavior Therapies
Biomedical Therapies
Psychopharmacology: Treating Psychological Disorders with Drugs
Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery
What a Scientist Sees: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Evaluating Biomedical Therapies
Therapy Essentials
Therapy Goals and Effectiveness
Cultural Issues in Therapy
Women and Therapy
Institutionalization
Social Psychology
Our Thoughts about Others
Attribution: Explaining Behavior
Attitudes: Learned Predispositions toward Others
Our Feelings about Others
Prejudice and Discrimination
Interpersonal Attraction
What a Scientist Sees: Love Over the Life Span
Our Actions toward Others
Social Influence: Conformity and Obedience
What a Scientist Sees: What Influences Obedience?
Group Processes
Aggression
Altruism: Helping Others
Applying Social Psychology to Social Problems
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
Overcoming Destructive Obedience: When Is It Okay to Say No?
Statistics and Psychology
Answers to Self-Tests
Glossary
References
Credits
Name Index
Subject Index

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