Mechanical Properties of Ceramics

ISBN-10: 0471735817

ISBN-13: 9780471735816

Edition: 2nd 2009

List price: $152.00
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Description:

Mechanical Properties of Ceramics, Second Edition deals thoroughly with causes of mechanical failure of ceramics (including glass) and design for failure avoidance. Experimental facts and theoretical foundations for mechanical behavior are treated. Probabilistic and mechanistic methods of safe design are described and combined to provide design techniques both for moderate temperatures (brittle behavior) and high temperatures (creep behavior). The competing roles of microstructure in weakening and toughening ceramics are explored and interpreted in terms of reliability improvement through processing for controlled and tailored microstructures.
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Book details

List price: $152.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/20/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 496
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.716
Language: English

John B. Wachtman, PHD, was Sosman Professor of Ceramics at Rutgers University in New Jersey. Since he received his degree from the University of Maryland in 1961, he has worked as a research scientist, division chief, and director of the Center for Materials Research at the National Bureau of Standards. Dr. Wachtman is the author of several books and holds many awards, honors, and offices in various scientific societies.W. Roger Cannon, PHD, is Professor Emeritus of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University. He was previously on the research staff of MIT's Ceramic Processing Laboratory after receiving his PhD from Stanford University. His interests include mechanical properties, especially creep, sintering, and tape casting.M. John Matthewson, PHD, is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University. His research interests include the mechanical properties and reliability of materials and, in particular, of optical fiber and fiber components. He also works on computational modeling of various materials-related issues, including processing, sintering, and lifetime calculations.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Stress and Strain
Introduction
Tensor Notation for Stress
Stress in Rotated Coordinate System
Principal Stress
Principal Stresses in Three Dimensions
Stress Invariants
Stress Deviator
Strain
True Strees and True Strain
True Strain
True Stress
Problems
Types of Mechanical Behavior
Introduction
Elasticity and Brittle Fracture
Permanent Deformation
Elasticity
Introduction
Elasticity of Isotropic Bodies
Reduced Notation for Stresses, Strains, and Elastic Constants
Effect of Symmetry on Elastic Constants
Orientation Dependence of Elastic Moduli in Single Crystals and Composites
Values of Polycrystalline Moduli in Terms of Single-Crystal Constants
Variation of Elastic Constants with Lattice Parameter
Variation of Elastic Constants with Temperature
Elastic Properties of Porous Ceramics
Stored Elastic Energy
Problems
Strength of Defect-Free Solids
Introduction
Theoretical Strength in Tension
Theoretical Strength in Shear
Problems
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Introduction
Stress Concentrations
Griffith Theory of Fracture of a Brittle Solid
Stress at Crack Tip: An Estimate
Crack Shape in Brittle Solids
Irwin Formulation of Fracture Mechanics: Stress Intensity Factor
Irwin Formulation of Fracture Mechanics: Energy Release Rate
Relationship between G and KI
Some Useful Stress Intensity Factors
The J Integral
Cracks with Internal Loading
Failure under Multiaxial Stress
Problems
Measurements of Elasticity, Strength, and Fracture Toughness
Introduction
Tensile Tests
Flexure Test
Three-Point Bending
Four-Point Bending
Fracture Toughness Measurement by Bending
Double-Cantilever-Beam Test
Double-Torsion Test
Indentation Test
Direct Method
Indirect Method
Modified Method
Summary of the Three Methods
ASTM Standard C 1421 Method
Biaxial Flexure Testing
Elastic Constant Determination Using Vibrational and Ultrasonic Methods
Problems
Statistical Treatment of Strength
Introduction
Statistical Distributions
Strength Distribution Functions
Gaussian, or Normal, Distribution
Weibull Distribution
Comparison of the Normal and Weibull Distributions
Weakest Link Theory
Determining Weibull Parameters
Effect of Specimen Size
Adaptation to Bend Testing
Safety Factors
Example of Safe Stress Calculation
Proof Testing
Use of Pooled Fracture Data in Linear Regression Determination of Weibull Parameters
Method of Maximum Likelihood in Weibull Parameter Estimation
Statistics of Failure under Multiaxial Stress
Effects of Slow Crack Propagation and R-Curve Behavior on Statistical Distributions of Strength
Surface Flaw Distributions and Multiple Flaw Distributions
Problems
Subcritical Crack Propagation
Introduction
Observed Subcritical Crack Propagation
Crack Velocity Theory and Molecular Mechanism
Time to Failure under Constant Stress
Failure under Constant Stress Rate
Comparison of Times to Failure under Constant Stress and Constant Stress Rate
Relation of Weibull Statistical Parameters with and without Subcritical Crack Growth
Construction of Strength-Probability-Time Diagrams
Proof Testing to Guarantee Minimum Life
Subcritical Crack Growth and Failure from Flaws Originating From Residual Stress Concentrations
Slow Crack Propagation at High Temperature
Problems
Stable Crack Propagation and R-Curve Behavior
Introduction
R-Curve (T-Curve) Concept
R-Curve Effects of Strength Distributions
Effect of R Curve on Subcritical Crack Growth
Problems
Overview of Toughening Mechanisms in Ceramics
Introduction
Toughening by Crack Deflection
Toughening by Crack Bowing
General Remarks on Crack Tip Shielding
Effect of Microstructure on Toughness and Strength
Introduction
Fracture Models in Polycrystalline Ceramics
Crystalline Anisotropy in Polycrystalline Ceramics
Effect of Grain Size on Toughness
Natural Flaws in Polycrystalline Ceramics
Effect of Grain Size on Fracture Strength
Effect of Second-Phase Particles on Fracture Strength
Relationship between Strength and Toughness
Effect of Porosity on Toughness and Strength
Fracture of Traditional Ceramics
Problems
Toughening by Transformation
Introduction
Basic Facts of Transformation Toughening
Theory of Transformation Toughening
Shear-Dilatant Transformation Theory
Grain-Size-Dependent Transformation Behavior
Application of Theory to Ca-Stabilized Zirconia
Problems
Mechanical Properties of Continuous-Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites
Introduction
Elastic Behavior of Composites
Fracture Behavior of Composites with Continuous, Aligned Fibers
Complete Matrix Cracking of Composites with Continuous, Aligned Fibers
Propagation of Short, Fully Bridged Cracks
Propagation of Partially Bridged Cracks
Additional Treatment of Crack-Bridging Effects
Additional Statistical Treatments
Summary of Fiber-Toughening Mechanisms
Other Failure Mechanisms in Continuous, Aligned-Fiber Composites
Tensile Stress-Strain Curve of Continuous, Aligned-Fiber Composites
Laminated Composites
Problems
Mechanical Properties of Whisker-, Ligament-, and Platelet-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites
Introduction
Model for Whisker Toughening
Combined Toughening Mechanisms in Whisker-Reinforced Composites
Ligament-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites
Platelet-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites
Problems
Cyclic Fatigue of Ceramics
Introduction
Cyclic Fatigue of Metals
Cyclic Fatigue of Ceramics
Mechanisms of Cyclic Fatigue of Ceramics
Cyclic Fatigue by Degradation of Crack Bridges
Short-Crack Fatigue of Ceramics
Implications of Cyclic Fatigue in Design of Ceramics
Problems
Thermal Stress and Thermal Shock in Ceramics
Introduction
Magnitude of Thermal Stresses
Figure of Merit for Various Thermal Stress Conditions
Crack Propagation under Thermal Stress
Problems
Fractography
Introduction
Qualitative Features of Fracture Surfaces
Quantitative Fractography
Fractal Concepts in Fractography
Fractography of Single Crystals and Polycrystals
Problems
Dislocations and Plastic Deformation in Ductile Crystals
Introduction
Definition of Dislocations
Glide and Climb of Dislocations
Force on a Dislocation
Stress Field and Energy of a Dislocation
Force Required to Move a Dislocation
Line Tension of a Dislocation
Dislocation Multiplication
Forces between Dislocations
Dislocation Pileups
Orowan's Equation for Strain Rate
Dislocation Velocity
Hardening by Solid Solution and Precipitation
Slip Systems
Partial Dislocations
Deformation Twinning
Problems
Dislocations and Plastic Deformation in Ceramics
Introduction
Slip Systems in Ceramics
Independent Slip Systems
Plastic Deformation in Single-Crystal Alumina
Twinning in Aluminum Oxide
Plastic Deformation of Single-Crystal Magnesium Oxide
Plastic Deformation of Single-Crystal Cubic Zirconia
Problems
Creep in Ceramics
Introduction
Nabarro-Herring Creep
Combined Diffusional Creep Mechanisms
Power Law Creep
Combined Diffusional and Power Law Creep
Role of Grain Boundaries in High-Temperature Deformation and Failure
Damage-Enhanced Creep
Superplasticity
Deformation Mechanism Maps
Problems
Creep Rupture at High Temperatures and Safe Life Design
Introduction
General Process of Creep Damage and Failure in Ceramics
Monkman-Grant Technique of Life Prediction
Two-Stage Strain Projection Technique
Fracture Mechanism Maps
Problems
Hardness and Wear
Introduction
Spherical Indenters versus Sharp Indenters
Methods of Hardness Measurement
Deformation around Indentation
Cracking around Indentation
Indentation Size Effect
Wear Resistance
Problems
Mechanical Properties of Glass and Glass Ceramics
Introduction
Typical Inorganic Glasses
Viscosity of Glass
Elasticity of Inorganic Glasses
Strength and Fracture Surface Energy of Inorganic Glasses
Achieving High Strength in Bulk Glasses
Glass Ceramics
Problems
Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Ceramics in General and Design Considerations
Introduction
Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Ceramics in General
Design Involving Mechanical Properties
References
Index
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