Manual of Mineral Science

ISBN-10: 0471721573
ISBN-13: 9780471721574
Edition: 23rd 2008 (Revised)
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Description: The classic in the field since 1848, this extraordinary reference offers readers unsurpassed coverage of mineralogy and crystallography. The book is known for integrating complete coverage of concepts and principles with a more systematic and  More...

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Book details

List price: $223.95
Edition: 23rd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/20/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 716
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 4.004
Language: English

The classic in the field since 1848, this extraordinary reference offers readers unsurpassed coverage of mineralogy and crystallography. The book is known for integrating complete coverage of concepts and principles with a more systematic and descriptive treatment of mineralogy. The revised edition now includes a CD-ROM to let readers see the minerals and crystals, while also viewing chemical composition, symmetry, and morphological crystallography.

Introduction
What is a Mineral?
Defining a Mineral More Broadly
Where Do We Find Minerals and What Can We Learn?
Minerals as Integral to Earth Science
Mineralogy as Important to Other Fields
Disciplines of Mineral Science
History of Mineralogy
Minerals in Our Lives
Naming of Minerals
References and Literature of Mineralogy
What's to Come
Standard Mineralogical Reference Works and Further Reading
Physical Properties of Minerals
Crystal Shape
Properties Based on Interaction with Light
Luster
Color
Streak
Play of Colors
Chatoyancy and Asterism
Luminescence
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
Mechanical Properties
Cleavage
Parting
Fracture
Hardness
Tenacity
Properties Related to Mass
Density and Specific Gravity
Factors That Affect Density and Specific Gravity
Average Specific Gravity
Measurement of Specific Gravity
Other Diagnostic Properties
Magnetism
Radioactivity
Solubility in Acids
Other Sensory Tests
Electrical Properties (of Industrial Use)
Piezoelectricity
Pyroelectricity
References and Further Reading
Elements of Crystal Chemistry
The Atom
Electron Configuration
Chemical Elements, Electronic Configuration, and the Periodic Table
Atomic and Ionic Radii
The Ion
Bonding Forces in Crystals
Bonds with Valence Electrons
Ionic Bond
Metallic Bond
Covalent Bond
Estimation of the Character of the Bonding Mechanism
Electronegativity
Bonds That Do Not Involve Valence Electrons
Van der Waals Bond
Hydrogen Bond
Crystals with More Than One Bond Type
References and Further Reading
Aspects of Crystal Structures
Coordination of Ions
Pauling's Rules
The Coordination Principle
Other Coordination Geometries
Coordination of Common Cations
The Electrostatic Valency Principle
Uniform Bond Strength
Nonuniform Bond Strength
Sharing of Polyhedral Elements, 1
Sharing of Polyhedral Elements, 2
The Principle of Parsimony
Additional Controls on Mineral Structures
Isostructuralism
Polymorphism
Illustration of Crystal Structures
Examples of Selected Common Structure Types
NaCl Structure
CsCl Structure
Sphalerite (ZnS) Structure
CaF[subscript 2] Structure
Rutile (TiO[subscript 2]) Structure
Perovskite(ABO[subscript 3]) Structure
Spinel (AB[subscript 2]O[subscript 4]) Structure
Silicate Structures
References and Further Reading
Chemical Composition of Minerals
Composition of the Earth
Composition of the Earth's Crust
Composition of the Mantle
Composition of the Core
Composition of the Earth
Variability of Mineral Compositions
Substitutional Solid Solution
Coupled Substitution
Interstitial Solid Solution
Omission Solid Solution
Determination of a Mineral Formula
Calculation of Mineral Formulae from Metal Percentages
Mineral Formulae from Oxide Weight Percentages
Mineral Formulae for Hydrous Silicates
Graphical Representation of Mineral Composition
Linear or Bar Diagrams
Triangular Diagrams
Triangular Representation of More Than Three Components
References and Further Reading
Crystallography: External Symmetry of Minerals
Symmetry
Symmetry Elements (Without Translation)
Rotation
Reflection (Mirror)
Center of Symmetry
Rotation with Inversion
Symmetry Notation
Combinations of Rotations
Combinations of Rotation Axes and Mirrors
Combinations of Symmetry Operations Without Translation
Crystal Systems
Crystallographic Axes
Crystallographic Notation for Planes
Face Intercepts
Miller Indices
Zones
Crystal Form
Names of Forms
Illustration and Description of Forms
References and Further Reading
Bilateral Symmetry in Humans and Architecture
Internal Order and Symmetry In Minerals
Translation Directions and Distances
One-Dimensional Order-Rows
Two-Dimensional Order-Plane Lattices
Rotation Angle Restrictions
Symmetry Content of Planar Motifs
Symmetry Content of Plane Lattices
Two-Dimensional Plane Groups
Three-Dimensional Order
Three-Dimensional Lattices
Symmetry Elements in 3D that Involve Translation: Screw Axes and Glide Planes
Space Groups
References and Further Reading
Patterns in Our Environment
Periodic Drawings
Crystal Projections
Spherical Projection
Stereographic Projection
Stereographic Net and the Mechanics of Plotting
Measuring Crystal Angles
Projection of an Orthorhombic Crystal
Projection of a Monoclinic Crystal
References and Further Reading
Selected Point Groups and Further Aspects of Space Groups
Nineteen of the Thirty-Two Point Groups
Triclinic System
Monoclinic System
Orthorhombic System
Tetragonal System
Hexagonal System
Isometric System
Characteristics of Isometric Crystals
Representations of Some Space Groups
Space Group Derivation
Illustrations of Space Groups
References and Further Reading
Crystal Growth and Defects; Twinning, Color, and Magnetism
Crystal Growth
Vectorial Properties
Structural Complexities and Defects
Point Defects
Line Defects
Planar Defects
Other Defects
Mineralogic Examples of Defect Structures
Intergrowths of Crystals
Twinning
Twin Classification
Common Twin Laws
Triclinic System
Monoclinic System
Orthorhombic System
Tetragonal System
Hexagonal System
Isometric System
Origin of Color
Crystal Field Transitions
Molecular Orbital Transitions
Color Centers
Physical Processes as a Cause of Color
Origin of Magnetic Properties
Mineraloids (Noncrystalline Minerals)
References and Further Reading
Mineral Stability and Phase Diagrams
Stability, Activation Energy, and Equilibrium
Introductory Thermodynamics
Phase Diagrams
Components
Examples of Mineral Stability (Phase) Diagrams
One-Component Diagrams
Two-Component Diagrams
Three- or More-Component Diagrams
Diagrams for Mineral Reactions Involving H[subscript 2]O or CO[superscript 2]
Eh-pH Diagrams
References and Further Reading
Post-Crystallization Processes in Minerals
Polymorphic Reactions
Reconstructive Polymorphism
Displacive Polymorphism
Order-Disorder Polymorphism
Polytypism
Secondary Twinning
Exsolution
Radioactivity and Metamictization
Metamict Minerals
Pseudomorphism
References and Further Reading
Optical Microscopy
Nature of Light
Reflection and Refraction
Refractive Index and Snell's Law
Total Reflection and the Critical Angle
Isotropic and Anisotropic Crystals
Polarized Light
Polarized Light by Absorption
Polarized Light by Reflection
The Polarizing Microscope
Microscopic Examination of Minerals and Rocks
Isotropic Crystals and the Becke Line
Uniaxial Crystals
Uniaxial Crystals Between Crossed Polars
Extinction
Interference
Accessory Plates
Uniaxial Crystals in Convergent Polarized Light
Determination of Optic Sign
Sign of Elongation
Absorption and Dichroism
Biaxial Crystals
The Biaxial Indicatrix
Optical Orientation in Biaxial Crystals
Biaxial Crystals in Convergent Polarized Light
The Apparent Optic Angle
Determination of Optic Sign of Biaxial Crystals
Absorption and Pleochroism
Other Properties
Optical Properties of Opaque Minerals
References and Further Reading
Analytical and Imaging Methods in Mineral Science
Technique Overview
Techniques That Use X-rays
X-ray Diffraction Techniques (XRD)
X-ray Spectra
Diffraction Effects and the Bragg Equation
Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction and Structure Analysis
The Determination of Crystal Structures
X-ray Powder Diffraction and Mineral Identification
X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF)
Electron Beam Techniques
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA)
Additional Techniques
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
References and Further Reading
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Native Elements, Sulfides, and Sulfosalts
Mineral Classification
Crystal Chemistry of Native Elements, Sulfides, and Sulfosalts
Native Elements
Native Metals
Native Semimetals
Native Nonmetals
Sulfides
Sulfosalts
Systematic Descriptions
Native Metals
Native Nonmetals
Sulfides, Sulfarsenides, and Arsenides
Sulfosalts
References and Further Reading
Economic Geology
Diamond Synthesis
Veins and Vein Mineralization
Sulfide Minerals as Ores and as Mining-Related Contaminants
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides
Crystal Chemistry of Oxides
Crystal Chemistry of Hydroxides
Crystal Chemistry of Halides
Systematic Descriptions
Oxides
Hydroxides
Halides
References and Further Reading
Ore Minerals for the Steel Industry
Evaporite Minerals
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates, Sulfates, Chromates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadates
Crystal Chemistry of Carbonates
Calcite Group
Aragonite Group
Dolomite Group
Crystal Chemistry of Nitrates
Crystal Chemistry of Borates
Crystal Chemistry of Sulfates
Crystal Chemistry of Tungstates and Molybdates
Crystal Chemistry of Phosphates, Arsenaes, and Vanadates
Systematic Descriptions
Carbonates
Nitrates
Borates
Sulfates and Chromates
Tungstates and Molybdates
Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadates
References and Further Reading
The Source of Chemicals in Fertilizers
Crystal Chemistry of Rock-Forming Silicates
Nesosilicates
Sorosilicates
Cyclosilicates
Inosilicates
Pyroxene Group
Pyroxenoid Group
Amphibole Group
Phyllosilicates
Tectosilicates
SiO[subscript 2] Group
Feldspar Group
Structure
Composition
Feldspathoid Group
Zeolite Group
References and Further Reading
Systematic Descriptions of Rock-Forming Silicates
Nesosilicates
Phenacite Group
Olivine Group
Garnet Group
Al[subscript 2]SiO[subscript 2] Group
Humite Group
Sorosilicates
Epidote Group
Cyclosilicates
Inosilicates
Pyroxene Group
Pyroxenoid Group
Amphibole Group
Phyllosilicates
Serpentine Group
Clay Mineral Group
Mica Group
Chlorite Group
Related Species
Tectosilicates
SiO[subscript 2] Group
Feldspar Group
K-Feldspars
Feldspathoid Group
Scapolite Series
Zeolite Group
References and Further Reading
The Two Most Common Crustal Rock Types: Basalt and Granite
Asbestos: A Mixture and Mix-Up of Minerals
Clay Minerals and Some of Their Applications
Mineral Dust in the Environment
Minerals in Pegmatites
Zeolites and Their Many Unique Properties
Gem Minerals
Gem Minerals
Gem Qualifications
Types of Gem Cuts
The Early Uses of Gems
Important Gems-Past and Present
Diamond
Beryl
Ruby and Sapphire
Opal
Jade
Chrysoberyl
Topaz
Tourmaline
Quartz
Turquoise
Garnet
Zircon
Olivine
Gem Properties and Instruments for Their Determination
Physical Properties
Cleavage and Fracture
Hardness
Specific Gravity
Fluorescence
Instruments for Studying Gems
Observation
Hand Lens
The Microscope
The Polariscope
Refractive Index and the Refractometer
Dispersion
The Dichroscope
Color Filters
The Spectroscope
X-ray Diffraction
Synthesis of Gem Materials
Verneuil Process
Czochralski Process
Flux Growth
Hydrothermal Growth
Treatment of Gemstones
Dyeing
Heat Treatment
Irradiation
Synthetic and Treated Gems
Beryl
Chrysoberyl
Corundum (Ruby and Sapphire)
Diamond
Jade
Opal
Quartz
Rutile
Spinel
Turquoise
Manufactured Gem Materials Without Natural Counterparts
Garnet
Strontium Titanate
Cubic Zirconia
References and Further Reading
Mineral Assemblages: Introduction to Rock Types
Igneous Rocks
General Occurrence and Texture
Chemical Composition
Classification
Mineralogical Composition
Plutonic Rocks
Volcanic Rocks
Fragmental Igneous Rocks
Pegmatites
Sedimentary Rocks
Chemical Composition
Mineralogical Composition
Classification
Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks
Allochemical Carbonate Rocks
Orthochemical Sedimentary Rocks
Further Description of Rock Types
Metamorphic Rocks
Chemical Composition
Mineralogical Composition
Rock Types
References and Further Reading
Determinative Tables
General Classification of the Tables
Luster-Metallic or Submetallic
Luster-Nonmetallic
Minerals Arranged by Several Physical Properties
Minerals Arranged According to Increasing Specific Gravity
Nonopaque Minerals and Some Synthetic Compounds Arranged According to Increasing Refractive index
Outstanding Contributions to the Mineral Sciences
Development of Models for the Atom
Distribution of Forms in 32 Point Groups, Arranged by Crystal System
Space Groups as an Expression of Morphology and Structure
Mineral Index
Subject Index

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