Fundamentals of Environmental Sampling and Analysis

ISBN-10: 0471710970
ISBN-13: 9780471710974
Edition: 2006
List price: $155.00
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Description: The author provides a comprehensive overview on the fundamentals of environmental sampling and analysis for students in environmental science and engineering as well as environmental professionals in sampling and analytical work.

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Book details

List price: $155.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/9/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 456
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.002
Language: English

The author provides a comprehensive overview on the fundamentals of environmental sampling and analysis for students in environmental science and engineering as well as environmental professionals in sampling and analytical work.

Chunlong (Carl) Zhang, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Environmental Science and Environmental Chemistry at the University of Houston-Clear Lake. He has over two decades of experience in academia, industry, and consulting. Dr. Zhang has firsthand, practical knowledge of environmental sampling and analysis from work in the field and in the lab. He is the author or coauthor of numerous articles and reports on contaminant fate/transport, environmental remediation, and environmental assessment.

Preface
Introduction to Environmental Data Acquisition
Introduction
Importance of Scientifically Reliable and Legally Defensible Data
Sampling Error vs. Analytical Error During Data Acquisition
Environmental Sampling
Scope of Environmental Sampling
Where, When, What, How, and How Many
Environmental Analysis
Uniqueness of Modern Environmental Analysis
Classical and Modern Analytical and Monitoring Techniques
References
Questions and Problems
Basics of Environmental Sampling and Analysis
Essential Analytical and Organic Chemistry
Concentration Units
Common Organic Pollutants and Their Properties
Analytical Precision, Accuracy, and Recovery
Detection Limit and Quantitation Limit
Standard Calibration Curve
Essential Environmental Statistics
Measurements of Central Tendency and Dispersion
Understanding Probability Distributions
Type I and II Errors: False Positive and False Negative
Detection of Outliers
Analysis of Censored Data
Analysis of Spatial and Time Series Data
Essential Hydrology and Geology
Stream Water Flow and Measurement
Groundwater Flow in Aquifers
Groundwater Wells
Essential Knowledge of Environmental Regulations
Major Regulations Administrated by the U.S. EPA
Other Important Environmental Regulations
References
Questions and Problems
Environmental Sampling Design
Planning and Sampling Protocols
Data Quality Objectives
Basic Considerations of Sampling Plan
Sampling Environmental Population
Where (Space) and When (Time) to Sample
Obtain Representative Samples from Various Matrices
Environmental Sampling Approaches: Where and When
Judgmental Sampling
Simple Random Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Other Sampling Designs
Estimating Sample Numbers: How Many Samples are Required
References
Questions and Problems
Environmental Sampling Techniques
General Guidelines of Environmental Sampling Techniques
Sequence of Sampling Matrices and Analytes
Sample Amount
Sample Preservation and Storage
Selection of Sample Containers
Selection of Sampling Equipment
Techniques for Sampling Various Media: Practical Approaches and Tips
Surface Water and Wastewater Sampling
Groundwater Sampling
Soil and Sediment Sampling
Hazardous Waste Sampling
Biological Sampling
Air and Stack Emission Sampling
References
Questions and Problems
Methodology and Quality Assurance/Quality Control of Environmental Analysis
Overview on Standard Methodologies
The U.S. EPA Methods for Air, Water, Wastewater, and Hazardous Waste
Other Applicable Methods: APHA/ASTM/OSHA/NIOSH/USGS/AOAC
Selection of Standard Methods
Methods for Sample Preparation
Methods for Physical, Biological, and General Chemical Parameters
Methods for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs
Methods for Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs
Methods for Other Pollutants and Compounds of Emerging Environmental Concerns
Field Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC
Types of Field QA/QC Samples
Numbers of Field QA/QC Samples
Analytical Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Quality Control Procedures for Sample Preparation
Quality Control Procedures During Analysis
References
Questions and Problems
Common Operations and Wet Chemical Methods in Environmental Laboratories
Basic Operations in Environmental Laboratories
Labware Cleaning Protocols for Trace Analysis
Chemical Reagent Purity, Standard, and Reference Materials
Volumetric Glassware and Calibration
Laboratory Health, Safety, and Emergency First Aid
Waste Handling and Disposal
Wet Chemical Methods and Common Techniques in Environmental Analysis
Gravimetric and Volumetric Wet Chemical Methods
Common Laboratory Techniques
Analytical Principles for Common Wet Chemical Methods
Moisture in Solid and Biological Samples
Solids in Water, Wastewater, and Sludge (TS, TSS, TDS, VS
Acidity, Alkalinity, and Hardness of Waters
Oxygen Demand in Water and Wastewater (DO, BOD and COD
Oil and Grease in Water and Wastewater
Residual Chlorine and Chloride in Drinking Water
Ammonia in Wastewater
Cyanide in Water, Wastewater and Soil Extract
Sulfide in Water and Waste
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Sample Preparation for Environmental Analysis
Overview on Sample Preparation
Purpose of Sample Preparation
Types of Sample Preparation
Sample Preparation for Metal Analysis
Various Forms of Metals and Preparation Methods
Principles of Acid Digestion and Selection of Acid
Alkaline Digestion and Other Extraction Methods
Extraction for SVOC and Non-VOC from Liquid or Solid Samples
Separatory Funnel and Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE
Solid Phase Extraction
Solid Phase Microextraction
Soxhlet and Automatic Soxhlet Extraction (Soxtec
Ultrasonic Extraction
Pressured Fluid Extraction
Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Comparison and Selection of Organic Extraction Methods
Post-Extraction Clean-up of Organic Compounds
Theories and Operation Principles of Various Clean-up Methods
Recommended Clean-up Method for Selected Compounds
Derivatization of Non-VOC for Gas Phase Analysis
Sample Preparation for VOC, Air and Stack Gas Emission
Dynamic Headspace Extraction (Purge-and-Trap
Static Headspace Extraction
Azeotropic and Vacuum Distillation
Volatile Organic Sampling Train
References
Questions and Problems
UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopic Methods in Environmental Analysis
Introduction to the Principles of Spectroscopy
Understanding the Interactions of Various Radiations with Matter
Origins of Absorption in Relation to Molecular Orbital Theories
Molecular Structure and UV-Visible/Infrared Spectra
Quantitative Analysis with Beer-Lambert's Law
UV-Visible Spectroscopy
UV-Visible Instrumentation
UV-VIS as a Workhorse in Environmental Analysis
Infrared Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers (FTIR
Dispersive Infrared Instruments (DIR
Nondispersive Infrared Instruments (NDIR
Applications in Industrial Hygiene and Air Pollution Monitoring
Practical Aspects of UV-Visible and Infrared Spectrometry
Common Tips for UV-Visible Spectroscopic Analysis
Sample Preparation for Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis
References
Questions and Problems
Atomic Spectroscopy for Metal Analysis
Introduction to the Principles of Atomic Spectroscopy
Flame and Flameless Atomic Absorption
Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission
Atomic X-ray Fluorescence
Instruments for Atomic Spectroscopy
Flame and Flameless Atomic Absorption
Cold Vapor and Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption
Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission
Atomic X-ray Fluorescence
Selection of the Proper Atomic Spectroscopic Techniques
Comparison of Detection Limits and Working Range
Comparison of Interferences and Other Considerations
Practical Tips to Sampling, Sample Preparation, and Metal Analysis
References
Questions and Problems
Chromatographic Methods for Environmental Analysis
Introduction to Chromatography
Types of Chromatography and Separation Columns
Common Stationary Phases: The Key to Separation
Other Parameters Important to Compound Separation
Terms and Theories of Chromatogram
Use of Chromatograms for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
Instruments of Chromatographic Methods
Gas Chromatography
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC
Ion Chromatography
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Common Detectors for Chromatography
Detectors for Gas Chromatography
Detectors for High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Detectors for Ion Chromatography
Applications of Chromatographic Methods in Environmental Analysis
Gases, Volatile, and Semivolatile Organics with GC
Semivolatile and Nonvolatile Organics with HPLC
Ionic Species with IC
Practical Tips to Chromatographic Methods
What Can and Cannot be Done with GC and HPLC
Development for GC and HPLC Methods
Overview on Maintenance and Troubleshooting
References
Questions and Problems
Electrochemical Methods for Environmental Analysis
Introduction to Electrochemical Theories
Review of Redox Chemistry and Electrochemical Cells
General Principles of Electroanalytical Methods
Types of Electrodes and Notations for Electrochemical Cells
Potentiometric Applications in Environmental Analysis
Measurement of pH
Measurement of Ions by Ion Selective Electrodes (ISEs
Potentiometric Titration
Voltammetric Applications in Environmental Analysis
Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen
Measurement of Anions by Amperometric Titration
Measurement of Metals by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV
References
Questions and Problems
Other Instrumental Methods in Environmental Analysis
Hyphenated Mass Spectrometric Methods and Applications
Atomic Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS
Molecular Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS
Mass Spectrometric Applications in Environmental Analysis
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR
NMR Spectrometers and the Origin of NMR Signals
Molecular Structures and NMR Spectra
Applications of NMR in Environmental Analysis
Miscellaneous Methods
Radiochemical Analysis
Surface and Interface Analysis
Screening Methods Using Immunoassay
References
Questions and Problems
Experiments
Data Analysis and Statistical Treatment: A Case Study on Ozone Concentrations in Cities of Houston-Galveston Area
Collection and Preservation of Surface Water and Sediment Samples and Field Measurement of Several Water Quality Parameters
Gravimetric Analysis of Solids and Titrimetric Measurement of Alkalinity of Streams and Lakes
Determination of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) by Titrimetric Winkler Method
Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in Water and Wastewater
Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Water by UV-Visible Spectrometry
Determination of Anionic Surfactant (Detergent) by Liquid-Liquid Extraction Followed by Colorimetric Methods
Determination of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium (Cr<sup>6+</sup> and Cr<sup>3+</sup>) in Water by Visible Spectrometry
Determination of Greenhouse Gases by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
Determination of Metals in Soil-Acid Digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES
Determination of Explosives Compounds in a Contaminated Soil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC
Measurement of Headspace Chloroethylene by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID
Determination of Chloroethylene by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD
Use of Ion Selective Electrode to Determine Trace Level of Fluoride in Drinking and Natural Water
Identification of BTEX and Chlorobenzene Compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS
Appendices
Common Abbreviations and Acronyms
Structures and Properties of Important Organic Pollutants
Standard Normal Cumulative Probabilities
Percentiles of t-Distribution
Critical Values for the F-Distribution
Required Containers, Preservation Techniques, and Holding Times
Index

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