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Survey Methodology

ISBN-10: 0471483486
ISBN-13: 9780471483489
Edition: 2004
List price: $79.50
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Book details

List price: $79.50
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/30/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 448
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

#60;p#62;Robert M. Groves, PhD, is Professor and Director of the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and Research Professor at the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland. #60;/p#62;#60;p#62;Floyd J. Fowler, PhD, is Senior Research Fellow in the Center for Survey Research at the University of Massachusetts Boston. #60;p#62;Mick P. Couper, PhD, is Research Professor at both the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland. #60;p#62;James M. Lepkowski, PhD, is Research Professor at the University of Michigan Survey Research Center, where he is also Associate Professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Director of the Joint Program in Survey Methodology. #60;p#62;Eleanor Singer, PhD, is Research Professor Emerita at the University of Michigan Survey Research Center. #60;p#62;Roger Tourangeau, PhD, is Research Professor at both the University of Michigan Survey Research Center and the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.

Preface
Acknowledgements
An Introduction to Survey Methodology
Introduction
A Brief History of Survey Research
The Purposes of Surveys
The Development of Standardized Questioning
The Development of Sampling Methods
The Development of Data Collection Methods
Some Examples of Ongoing Surveys
The National Crime Victimization Survey
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health
The Survey of Consumers
The National Assessment of Educational Progress
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
The Current Employment Statistics Program
What Can We Learn From the Six Example Surveys?
What is Survey Methodology?
The Challenge of Survey Methodology
About this Book
Inference and Error in Surveys
Introduction
The Lifecycle of a Survey From a Design Perspective
Constructs
Measurement
Response
Edited Response
The Target Population
The Frame Population
The Sample
The Respondents
Postsurvey Adjustments
How Design Becomes Process
The Lifecycle of a Survey from A Quality Perspective
The Observational Gap between Constructs and Measures
Measurement Error: The Observational Gap between the Ideal Measurement and the Response Obtained
Processing Error: the Observational Gap between the Variable Used in Estimation and that Provided by the Respondent
Coverage Error: the Nonobservational Gap between the Target Population and the Sampling Frame
Sampling Error: The Nonobservational Gap between the Sample and the Sampling Frame
Nonresponse Error: The Nonobservational Gap between the Sampling and the Respondent Pool
Adjustment Error
Putting It All Together
Error Notions in Different Kinds of Statistics
Summary
Target Populations, Sampling Frames, and Coverage Error
Introduction
Populations and Frames
Coverage Properties of Sampling Frames
Undercoverage
Ineligible Units
Clustering of Target Population Elements Within Frame Elements
Duplication of Target Population Elements in Sampling Frames
Complicated Mappings between Frame and Target Population Elements
Common Target Populations and Their Frame Issues
Households and Persons
Customers, Employees, or Members of an Organization
Organizations
Events
Rare Populations
Coverage Error
Reducing Undercoverage
The Half-Open Interval
Multiplicity Sampling
Multiple Frame Designs
Increasing Coverage While Including More Ineligible Elements
Summary
Sample Design and Sampling Error
Introduction
Samples and Estimates
Simple Random Sampling
Cluster Sampling
The Design Effect and Within-Cluster Homogeneity
Subsampling within Selected Clusters
Stratification and Stratified Sampling
Proportionate Allocation to Strata
Disproportionate Allocation to Strata
Systematic Selection
Complications in Practice
Two-Stage Cluster Designs with Probabilities Proportionate to Size (PPS)
Multistage and Other Complex Designs
How Complex Sample Designs are Described: The Sample Design for the NCVS
Sampling Persons in US Telephone Households
Summary
Methods of Data Collection
Alternative Methods of Data Collection
Degree of Interviewer Involvement
Degree of Interaction with the Respondent
Degree of Privacy
Channels of Communication
Technology Use
Implications of these Dimensions
Choosing the Appropriate Method
Effects of Different Data Collection Methods on Survey Errors
Measuring the Marginal Effect of Mode
Sampling Frame and Sample Design Implications of Mode Selection
Coverage Implications of Mode Selection
Nonresponse Implications of Mode Selection
Measurement Quality Implications of Mode Selection
Cost Implications
Summary on the Choice of Method
Using Multiple Modes of Data Collection
Summary
Nonresponse in Sample Surveys
Introduction
Three Major Types of Unit Nonresponse
Unit Nonresponse Due to Failure to Deliver the Survey Request
Unit Nonresponse Due to Refusals
Unit Nonresponse Due to the Inability to Provide the Requested Data
How Does Nonresponse Affect the Quality of Survey Statistics?
Computing Response and Nonresponse Rates
Trends in Response Rates over Time
Item Nonresponse
Design Features to Reduce Unit Nonresponse
Summary
Questions and Answers in Surveys
Alternatives Methods of Survey Measurement
Cognitive Processes in Answering Questions
Comprehension
Retrieval
Estimation and Judgment
Reporting
Other Models of the Response Process
Problems in Answering Survey Questions
Encoding Problems
Misinterpreting the Questions
Forgetting and Other Memory Problems
Estimation Processes for Behavioral Questions
Judgment Processes for Attitude Questions
Formatting the Answer
Motivated Misreporting
Navigational Errors
Guidelines for Writing Good Questions
Nonsensitive Questions About Behavior
Sensitive Questions About Behavior
Attitude Questions
Self-Administered Questions
Summary
Evaluating Survey Questions
Introduction
Expert Reviews
Focus Groups
Cognitive Interviews
Field Pretests and Behavior Coding
Randomized or Split-Ballot Experiments
Applying Question Standards
Summary of Question Evaluation Tools
Linking Concepts of Measurement Quality to Statistical Estimates
Validity
Response Bias
Reliability and Simple Response Variance
Summary
Survey Interviewing
The Role of the Interviewer
Interviewer Bias
Systematic Interviewer Effects on Reporting of Socially Undesirable Attributes
Systematic Interviewer Effects on Topics Related to Observable Interviewer Traits
Systematic Interviewer Effects Associated with Interviewer Experience
Interviewer Variance
Randomization Requirements for Estimating Interviewer Variance
Estimation of Interviewer Variance
Strategies for Reducing Interviewer Bias
The Role of the Interviewer in Motivating Respondent Behavior
Changing Interviewer Behavior
Strategies for Reducing Interviewer-Related Variance
Minimizing Questions that Require Nonstandard Interviewer Behavior
Professional, Task-Oriented Interviewer Behavior
Interviewers Reading Questions as They Are Worded
Interviewers Explaining the Survey Process to the Respondent
Interviewers Probing Nondirectively
Interviewers Recording Answers Exactly as Given
Summary on Strategies to Reduce Interviewer Variance
The Controversy About Standardized Interviewing
Interviewer Management
Interviewer Selection
Interviewer Training
Interviewer Supervision and Monitoring
The Size of Interviewer Workloads
Interviewers and Computer Use
Summary
Postcollection Processing of Survey Data
Introduction
Coding
Practical Issues of Coding
Theoretical Issues in Coding Activities
"Field Coding"--An Intermediate Design
Standard Classification Systems
Other Common Coding Systems
Quality Indicators in Coding
Summary of Coding
Entering Numeric Data into Files
Editing
Weighting
Weighting with a First-Stage Ratio Adjustment
Weighting for Differential Selection Probabilities
Weighting to Adjust for Unit Nonresponse
Poststratification Weighting
Putting All the Weights Together
Imputation for Item-missing data
Sampling Variance Estimation for Complex Samples
Survey Data Documentation and Metadata
Summary of Postsurvey Processing
Principles and Practices Related to Scientific Integrity
Introduction
Standards for the Conduct of Research
Standards for Dealing with Clients
Standards for Dealing with the Public
Standards for Dealing with Respondents
Legal Obligations to Survey Respondents
Ethical Obligations to Respondents
Informed Consent: Respect for Persons
Beneficence: Protecting Respondents from Harm
Efforts at Persuasion
Emerging Ethical Issues
Practices in Research Administration Regarding Human Subject Issues
Research About Informed Consent Protocols in Surveys
Research on Respondents' Reactions to the Content of Informed Consent Protocols
Research on Informed Consent Complications in Survey Methodological Studies
Research on Written versus Oral Informed Consent
Summary of Research on Informed Consent in Surveys
Procedures to Detect and Repair Interviewer Falsification
Disclosure Limitation Procedures
Administrative Procedures to Limit Identifiability of Survey Materials
Restricting Access to the Data Only to Those Subscribing to a Pledge of Confidentiality
Restricting the Contents of the Survey Data That May Be Released
Summary and Conclusions
FAQs about Survey Methodology
Introduction
The Questions and Their Answers
References
Index

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