Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing

ISBN-10: 0471475696
ISBN-13: 9780471475699
Edition: 2nd 2006 (Revised)
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Description: Covers a wide spectrum of remote sensing techniques as applied to earth and planetary atmospheres and surface sciences. Examines the basic physics of wave/matter interactions and techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum (UV,  More...

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Book details

List price: $187.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/7/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 616
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.750
Language: English

Covers a wide spectrum of remote sensing techniques as applied to earth and planetary atmospheres and surface sciences. Examines the basic physics of wave/matter interactions and techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum (UV, visible mm and microwave), and provides examples of major applications in the fields of geology, oceanography, planetology, and atmospheric sciences.

CHARLES ELACHI, PhD, is Director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Vice President at the California Institute of Technology, where he is also Professor of Electrical Engineering andPlanetary Science. Dr. Elachi is internationally recognized for his role in the development of a series of spaceborne imaging radars for Earth and planetary observations.JAKOB van ZYL, PhD, is Director for Astronomy and Physics at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and a Lecturer in Electrical Engineering and Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology. Dr. van Zyl is internationally recognized for his role in the development of imaging polarimetric radars and the associated data analysis and interpretation.

Preface
Introduction
Types and Classes of Remote Sensing Data
Brief History of Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing Space Platforms
Transmission Through the Earth and Planetary Atmospheres
References and Further Reading
Nature and Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
Fundamental Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Maxwell's Equations
Wave Equation and Solution
Quantum Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation
Polarization
Coherency
Group and Phase Velocity
Doppler Effect
Nomenclature and Definition of Radiation Quantities
Radiation Quantities
Spectral Quantities
Luminous Quantities
Generation of Electromagnetic Radiation
Detection of Electromagnetic Radiation
Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Matter: Quick Overview
Interaction Mechanisms Throughout the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Solid Surfaces Sensing in the Visible and Near Infrared
Source Spectral Characteristics
Wave-Surface Interaction Mechanisms
Reflection, Transmission, and Scattering
Vibrational Processes
Electronic Processes
Fluorescence
Signature of Solid Surface Materials
Signature of Geologic Materials
Signature of Biologic Materials
Depth of Penetration
Passive Imaging Sensors
Imaging Basics
Sensor Elements
Detectors
Types of Imaging Systems
Description of Some Visible/Infrared Imaging Sensors
Landsat-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)
Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)
Mars Exploration Rover Panchromatic Camera (Pancam)
Active Sensor
Surface Sensing at Very Short Wavelengths
Radiation Sources
Detection
Image Data Analysis
Detection and Delineation
Classification
Identification
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Solid-Surface Sensing: Thermal Infrared
Thermal Radiation Laws
Emissivity of Natural Terrain
Emissivity from the Sun and Planetary Surfaces
Heat ConductionTheory
Effect of Periodic Heating
Use of Thermal Emission in Surface Remote Sensing
Surface Heating by the Sun
Effect of Surface Cover
Separation of Surface Units Based on Their Thermal Signature
Example of Application in Geology
Effects of Clouds on Thermal Infrared Sensing
Use of Thermal Infrared Spectral Signatures in Sensing
Thermal Infrared Sensor
Heat Capacity Mapping Radiometer
Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner
ASTER Thermal Infrared Sensor
Spitzer Space Telescope
2001 Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS)
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Solid-Surface Sensing: Microwave Emission
Power-Temperature Correspondence
Simple Microwave Radiometry Models
Effects of Polarization
Effects of the Observation Angle
Effects of the Atmosphere
Effects of Surface Roughness
Applications and Use in Surface Sensing
Application in Polar Ice Mapping
Application in Soil Moisture Mapping
Measurement Ambiguity
Description of Microwave Radiometers
Antenna and Scanning Configuration for Real-Aperture Radiometers
Synthetic-Aperture Radiometers
Receiver Subsystems
Data Processing
Examples of Developed Radiometers
Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR)
Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)
Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission Microwave Imager (TMI)
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E)
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Solid-Surface Sensing: Microwave and Radio Frequencies
Surface Interaction Mechanism
Surface Scattering Models
Absorption Losses and Volume Scattering
Effects of Polarization
Effects of the Frequency
Effects of the Incidence Angle
Scattering from Natural Terrain
Basic Principles of Radar Sensors
Antenna Beam Characteristics
Signal Properties: Spectrum
Signal Properties: Modulation
Range Measurements and Discrimination
Doppler (Velocity) Measurement and Discrimination
High-Frequency Signal Generation
Imaging Sensors: Real-Aperture Radars
Imaging Geometry
Range Resolution
Azimuth Resolution
Radar Equation
Signal Fading
Fading Statistics
Geometric Distortion
Imaging Sensors: Synthetic-Aperture Radars
Synthetic-Array Approach
Focused Versus Unfocused SAR
Doppler-Synthesis Approach
SAR Imaging Coordinate System
Ambiguities and Artifacts
Point Target Response
Correlation with Point Target Response
Advanced SAR Techniques
Description of SAR Sensors
Applications of Imaging Radars
Nonimaging Radar Sensors: Scatterometers
Examples of Scatterometer Instruments
Example of Scatterometer Data
Nonimaging Radar Sensors: Altimeters
Examples of Altimeter Instruments
Altimeter Applications
Imaging Altimetry
Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter
Nonconventional Radar Sensors
Subsurface Sounding
Exercises
References and Further Readings
Ocean Surface Sensing
Physical Properties of the Ocean Surface
Tides and Currents
Surface Waves
Mapping of the Ocean Topography
Geoid Measurement
Surface Wave Effects
Surface Wind Effects
Dynamic Ocean Topography
Acillary Measurements
Surface Wind Mapping
Observations Required
Nadir Observations
Ocean Surface Imaging
Radar Imaging Mechanisms
Examples of Ocean Features on Radar Images
Imaging of Sea Ice
Ocean Color Mapping
Ocean Surface Temperature Mapping
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Basic Principles of Atmospheric Sensing and Radiative Transfer
Physical Properties of the Atmosphere
Atmospheric Composition
Particulates and Clouds
Wave Interaction Mechanisms in Planetary Atmospheres
Resonant Interactions
Spectral Line Shape
Nonresonant Absorption
Nonresonant Emission
Wave Particle Interaction and Scattering
Wave Refraction
Optical Thickness
Radiative Transfer Equation
Case of a Nonscattering Plane Parallel Atmosphere
Basic Concepts of Atmospheric Remote Souding
Basic Concept of Temperature Sounding
Basic Concept of Composition Sounding
Basic Concept of Pressure Sounding
Basic Concept of Density Measurement
Basic Concept of Wind Measurement
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Atmospheric Remote Sensing in the Microwave Region
Microwave Interactions with Atmospheric Gases
Basic Concept of Downlooking Sensors
Temperature Sounding
Constituent Density Profile: Case of Water Vapor
Basic Concept for Uplooking Sensors
Basic Concept for Limblooking Sensors
Inversion Concepts
Basic Elements of Passive Microwave Sensors
Surface Pressure Sensing
Atmospheric Sounding by Occultation
Microwave Scattering by Atmospheric Particles
Radar Sounding of Rain
Radar Equation for Precipitation Measurement
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Millimeter and Submillimeter Sensing of Atmospheres
Interaction with Atmospheric Constituents
Downlooking Sounding
Limb Sounding
Elements of a Millimeter Sounder
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Atmospheric Remote Sensing in the Visible and Infrared
Interaction of Visible and Infrared Radiation with the Atmosphere
Visible and Near-Infrared Radiation
Thermal Infrared Radiation
Resonant Interactions
Effects of Scattering by Particulates
Downlooking Sounding
General Formulation for Emitted Radiation
Temperature Profile Sounding
Simple Cases Weighting Functions
Weighting Functions for Off Nadir Observations
Composition Profile Sounding
Limb Sounding
Limb Sounding by Emission
Limb Sounding by Absorption
Illustrative Example: Pressure Modulator Radiometer
Illustrative Example: Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
Sounding of Atmospheric Motion
Passive Techniques
Passive Imaging of Velocity Field: Helioseismology
Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)
Active Techniques
Atmospheric Sensing at Very Short Wavelengths
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Ionospheric Sensing
Properties of Planetary Ionospheres
Wave Propagation in Ionized Media
Ionospheric Profile Sensing by Topside Sounding
Ionospheric Profile by Radio Occultation
Exercises
References and Further Reading
Use of Multiple Sensors For Surface Observations
Summary of Orbital Mechanics Relevant to Remote Sensing
Circular Orbits
General Characteristics
Geosynchronous Orbits
Sun-Synchronous Orbits
Coverage
Elliptical Orbits
Orbit Selection
Exercises
Simplified Weighting Functions
Case of Downlooking Sensors (Exponential Atmosphere)
Case of Downlooking Sensors (Linear Atmosphere)
Case of Upward Looking Sensors
Compression of a Linear FM Chirp Signal
Index

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