Educational Assessment A Practical Introduction

ISBN-10: 0471472484

ISBN-13: 9780471472483

Edition: 2007

Authors: Thomas P. Hogan
List price: $145.95
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Description: Hogan focuses on educational assessment as it is practiced today. He covers the basic concepts applicable to all types of assessment, then explores the preparation of teacher-made tests and other areas such as grading, legal issues, and evaluating one's own teaching.

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Book details

List price: $145.95
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/18/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 448
Size: 7.48" wide x 9.21" long x 0.67" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Introduction: The World of Educational Assessment
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
The Main Areas in Educational Assessment
Basic Principles
Teacher-made Assessments
Externally Prepared Tests
Special Applications
Guidelines from Professional Groups
Purposes of Assessment
Users of Educational Assessment
Current Trends and Emphases
A Little Bit of History
Standards-based Education
Accountability
Legal Activism
Concern for Fairness
Item Response Theory
Performance Assessment
State, National, and International Testing Programs
Computerization
Keeping Perspective
Some More Terminology
Measurement, Testing, Assessment
Standardized Testing
Distinctions Among Types of Tests
High-stakes Testing
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Statistics: Just a Little Bit
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Divisions of Statistics
Using the Computer for Statistics
Variables
Organization of Raw Data
Central Tendency
Variability
Shapes of Distributions
z-scores
The Correlation Coefficient and Scattergram
Cautions in Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient
Correlation Does Not Imply Causation
Most Correlations Detect Only Linear Relationships
The Assumption of Equal Scatter
The Correlation Depends on Variability in the Group
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Reliability: Consistency of Performance
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Some Examples
Reliability: The Basic Notion
What Factors Affect Reliability: The Sources of Unreliability
Test Scoring
Test Content
Test Administration
Personal Conditions
A Conceptual Framework
Methods of Determining Reliability
Test-Retest Reliability
Interrater and Intrarater Reliability
Alternate Form Reliability
Internal Consistency Reliability
Three Important Conclusions
The Standard Error of Measurement
Confidence Bands
Appropriate Units for SEM
Some Important Distinctions for the Term "Standard Error"
Reliability in Item Response Theory (IRT)
Reliability for Criterion-Referenced Interpretation
Reliability of What?
Some Concluding Examples
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Validity: What the Test Measures
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Introduction
Definition of Validity: Refining Our Thinking
Construct Underrepresentation and Construct Irrelevant Variance
Constructs as Targets
The Basic Issue
Face Validity
Content Validity
Application to Achievement Tests
How to Build Content Validity Into an Assessment
How to Check Content Validity of an Existing Test
Instructional Validity
Content Validity in Other Areas
Problems With Content Validity
Criterion-Related Validity
External, Realistic Criterion
Contrasted Groups
Correlations With Other Tests
Special Considerations for Interpreting Criterion-Related Validity
Construct Validity
Effect of Experimental Variables
Developmental Changes
Factor Analysis
Response Processes
Consequential Validity
Test Fairness, Test Bias
Studying Fairness for Classroom Assessments
Validity vs. Accuracy of Norms
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Norms and Criteria: Interpreting Student Performance
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
The Basic Issue
Norm-referenced and Criterion-referenced Interpretation
The Raw Score
The Correction for Guessing
The Special Case of Theta ([Theta])
Types of Norms
Percentile Ranks and Percentiles
Strengths and Weaknesses of Percentile Ranks
Standard Scores
T-scores
SATs and GREs
Deviation IQs
Stanines
Normal Curve Equivalents
Multilevel Standard Scores
Strengths and Weaknesses of Standard Scores
Developmental Norms
Grade Equivalents
Mental Age
Other Developmental Norms
Strengths and Weaknesses of Developmental Norms
Examples of Norm Tables
Narrative Reports and Norms
Norm Groups
National Norms
International Norms
Convenience Norm Groups
User Norms
Subgroup Norms
Local Norms
Institutional Norms and School Norms
The Standardization Group: Determining Its Usefulness
Criterion-referenced Interpretation
Setting Performance Standards
Special Scores
Sample Reports
Looking at Dora's Reports
Self-Referencing on Repeated Measures
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Planning for Assessment
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Introduction
General Goals vs. Specific Objectives
Taxonomies for Educational Objectives
Bloom's Taxonomy
The Affective Domain
The Psychomotor Domain
Alternative Taxonomies for the Cognitive Domain
A Conclusion and a Caution
Sources of Educational Objectives
Professional Organizations
States
NAEP and TIMSS
Textbooks
School Districts
Teacher-prepared Objectives
Guidelines for Preparing Your Own Objectives
The Overall Assessment Plan
Planning a Specific Assessment
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Selected-Response Items: Multiple Choice, True-False, and Matching
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Types of Test Items: Categories and Terms
Comparison of Selected-Response and Constructed-Response Items
Multiple-choice Items
Suggestions for Writing MC Items
A Brief Summary
True-False Items
Other Binary Choice Formats
Matching Items
Allowing Student Comments
Developing Item-Writing Skill
Lucky Guessing
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Constructed-Response Items: Essays, Performances, and Portfolios
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
General Nature of Constructed-Response Items
Two Key Challenges for Constructed-Response Items
Completion Items
Essays
Performance Tasks
Methods of Scoring and Scoring Rubrics
Automated Scoring
Special Issues for Performance Assessments
Differing Applicability
Collaborative Work on Performance Tasks
Essays and Performance Tasks Completed Outside the Classroom
Brief CRs for Formative Evaluation
Suggestions for Preparing Constructed-Response Items
Suggestions for Completing the Scoring
Portfolio Assessment
Special Characteristics of Portfolios
Some Cautions
Principles for Evaluating Portfolios
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Interests, Creativity, and Nontest Indicators
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Assessing Interests and Attitudes
The Likert Method
The Problem of Faking
Free-Response Measures of Interests and Attitudes
Two Practical Matters
Existing Measures of Interests and Attitudes
Assessing Creativity
Convergent and Divergent Thinking
Prompts for Creative Thinking
Scoring Creative Responses
Standardized Tests for Creative Thinking
Nontest Indicators
Follow-up Activities: Jobs and College
Indexes From Routine Records
Satisfaction Reports
Self-Reports of Achievement
Unobtrusive Measures
Nontest Indicators for Classroom Use
Outcomes, Not Inputs
Concluding Notes on Nontest Indicators
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Administering and Analyzing Tests
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Administering Tests
Not Fair!
Preparing Test Materials
Remote Preparation of Students
Immediate Preparation of Students
Managing the Testing Environment
Preparation for Scoring
Returning the Tests
Wrapping Up
Item Analysis
Two Key Item Statistics: p and D
How Does Item Analysis Help?
Item Analysis in Large-Scale Testing Programs
Item Analysis for Interest and Attitude Measures
Item Analysis for Essays and Performance Items
Item Analysis Computer Programs
Qualitative, Informal Item Analysis
Cheating: Prevalence, Practices, and Prevention
Prevalence
Practices
Prevention
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Standardized Tests I: Achievement
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Standardized Achievement Tests: What Are They?
A Broad Classification of Standardized Achievement Tests
Some Common Characteristics
Contrasts with Teacher-Made Tests
Achievement Batteries
An Example: Stanford Achievement Test
A Class List Report for Ms. Prescott's Class
Typical Uses and Special Features
Single-area Achievement Tests
Examples
Looking at Jenny's Report
Diagnostic Tests
Typical Uses and Special Features
Licensing and Certification Tests
Examples
The Praxis Exams
Typical Uses and Special Features
State Assessment Programs
General Characteristics
Sources of Information about State Assessment Programs
A National and an International Testing Program
A National Testing Program: NAEP
An International Testing Program: TIMSS
Special Features
Individually Administered Achievement Tests
Examples
Typical Uses and Special Features
Administering Standardized Tests
Before Testing
During the Test
After the Test
Clearly Unethical Practices
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Standardized Tests II: Ability, Interests, and Personality
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Mental Ability Tests
A Profusion of Names
Theories About Mental Ability
Individually Administered Mental Ability Tests
General Features of Individually Administered Mental Ability Tests
Examples of Individually Administered Mental Ability Tests
Group-Administered Mental Ability Tests
General Features of Group-Administered Mental Ability Tests
Examples of Group-Administered Mental Ability Tests
Intelligence Tests and the Definition of Mental Retardation
Intelligence Tests and the Definition of Learning Disabilities
Personality and Behavior Rating Scales
Self-Report Inventories
Projective Techniques
Behavior Rating Scales
Career Interest Inventories
General Characteristics
Typical Uses and Users
Widely Used Career Interest Inventories
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Grading and Reporting
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Definition of Grading
Purposes of Grades
Feedback
Administrative Purposes
Motivation
Rationales for Assigning Grades
Pros and Cons of the Various Rationales
Research Results and Conclusions
Coding Systems: The Actual Grades
Letter Grades
Percentage Grades
Verbal Descriptors
Checklists
Narrative Reports
Combining Information to Get a Final Grade
Record Keeping
Applying Weights to the Elements
Converting All Scores to a Common Scale
Converting the Composite to a Grade
Three Special Problems
The Effect of Variability on Weights
The Effect of Zero Scores
The Effect of Regression to the Mean
Grades for Nonacademic Areas
Report Cards
Other Procedures for Reporting to Parents
Parent-Teacher Conference
Reporting Standardized Test Results to Parents
Other Communications
Legal Considerations
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Educational Assessment and the Law
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Definition of Laws
Basic Terminology
Why Is It So Confusing?
Laws Related to Assessment
The 14th Amendment
The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1991
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act: IDEA 2004 and Its Predecessors
No Child Left Behind Act
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
Gifted and Talented Students
Illustrative Court Cases
Debra P. v. Turlington and GI Forum v. TEA
Larry P. v. Riles, PASE v. Hannon, and Crawford v. Honig
A Concluding Reminder on Grading
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Evaluating Teaching: Applying Assessment to Yourself
Objectives
What This Chapter Is About
Why This Topic Is Important
Our Focus of Attention
Let's Remember Basic Principles
Why Is It So Difficult?
Administrator Ratings
Mentor/Colleague Ratings
Videotaping and Audio Recording
Protfolios
Student Test Scores
Student Ratings of Teachers
Parent Ratings
Student Self-Reports of Achievement
Unobtrusive Measures
Teacher Competency Tests and Additional Certifications
Don't Forget the "Other Stuff"
The Importance of Content
From Information to Reflection to Action
Practical Advice
Summary
Key Terms
Exercises
Appendixes
Sources of Information About Tests
Major Test Publishers
Useful Formulas
Sample IEP
State Web Sites
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index
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