Principles and Practices of Automatic Process Control

ISBN-10: 0471431907
ISBN-13: 9780471431909
Edition: 3rd 2006 (Revised)
List price: $277.95
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Description: Offering the most practical applied treatment available, this book provides the theory necessary for successful automatic process control. This new edition includes descriptions of process characteristics, modeling, instrumentation & control valves  More...

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Book details

List price: $277.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/5/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 580
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.168

Offering the most practical applied treatment available, this book provides the theory necessary for successful automatic process control. This new edition includes descriptions of process characteristics, modeling, instrumentation & control valves combined with numerous industrial examples.

Dr. Jay Brockman is concurrently serving as an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Notre Dame.

Introduction
A Process Control System
Important Terms and Objective of Automatic Process Control
Regulatory and Servo Control
Transmission Signals, Control Systems, and Other Terms
Control Strategies
Feedback Control
Feedforward Control
Background Needed for Process Control
Summary
Problems
Mathematical Tools for Control Systems Analysis
The Laplace Transform
Definition of the Laplace Transform
Properties of the Laplace Transform
Solution of Differential Equations Using the Laplace Transform
Laplace Transform Solution Procedure
Inversion by Partial Fractions Expansion
Handling Time Delays
Characterization of Process Response
Deviation Variables
Output Response
Stability
Response of First-Order Systems
Step Response
Ramp Response
Sinusoidal Response
Response with Time Delay
Response of a Lead-Lag Unit
Response of Second-Order Systems
Overdamped Responses
Underdamped Responses
Higher-Order Responses
Linearization
Linearization of Functions of One Variable
Linearization of Functions of Two or More Variables
Linearization of Differential Equations
Summary
Problems
First-Order Dynamic Systems
Processes and Importance of Process Characteristics
Mathematical Process Modeling
Thermal Process Example
Dead Time
Transfer Functions and Block Diagrams
Transfer Functions
Block Diagrams
Gas Process Example
Chemical Reactors
Introductory Remarks
Chemical Reactor Example
Effects of Process Nonlinearities
Additional Comments
Summary
Problems
Higher-Order Dynamic Systems
Noninteracting Systems
Noninteracting Level Process
Thermal Tanks in Series
Interacting Systems
Interacting Level Process
Thermal Tanks with Recycle
Nonisothermal Chemical Reaction
Response of Higher-Order Systems
Other Types of Process Responses
Integrating Processes: Level Process
Open-Loop Unstable Process: Chemical Reactor
Inverse Response Processes: Chemical Reactor
Summary
Overview of Chapters 3 and 4
Problems
Basic Components of Control Systems
Sensors and Transmitters
Control Valves
The Control Valve Actuator
Control Valve Capacity and Sizing
Control Valve Characteristics
Control Valve Gain and Transfer Function
Control Valve Summary
Feedback Controllers
Actions of Controllers
Types of Feedback Controllers
Modifications to the PID Controller and Additional Comments
Reset Windup and Its Prevention
Feedback Controller Summary
Summary
Problems
Design of Single-Loop Process Control Systems
The Feedback Control Loop
Closed-Loop Transfer Function
Characteristic Equation of the Loop
Steady-State Closed-Loop Response
Stability of the Control Loop
Criterion of Stability
Direct Substitution Method
Effect of Loop Parameters on the Ultimate Gain and Period
Effect of Dead Time
Summary
Summary
Problems
Tuning of Feedback Controllers
Quarter Decay Ratio Response by Ultimate Gain
Open-Loop Process Characterization
Process Step Testing
Tuning for Quarter Decay Ratio Response
Tuning for Minimum Error Integral Criteria
Tuning Sampled-Data Controllers
Summary of Controller Tuning
Tuning Controllers for Integrating Processes
Model of Liquid Level Control System
Proportional Level Controller
Averaging Level Control
Summary of Tuning for Integrating Processes
Synthesis of Feedback Controllers
Development of the Controller Synthesis Formula
Specification of the Closed-Loop Response
Controller Modes and Tuning Parameters
Summary of Controller Synthesis Results
Tuning Rules by Internal Model Control (IMC)
Tips for Feedback Controller Tuning
Estimating the Reset and Rate Times
Adjusting the Proportional Gain
Summary
Problems
Root Locus and Frequency Response Techniques
Some Definitions
Analysis of Feedback Control Systems by Root Locus
Plotting Root Locus Diagrams
Analysis of Control Systems by Frequency Response
Bode Plots
Frequency Response Stability Criterion
Summary
Problems
Cascade Control
A Process Example
Stability Considerations
Implementation and Tuning of Controllers
Two-Level Cascade Systems
Three-Level Cascade Systems
Other Process Examples
Final Comments
Summary
Problems
Ratio, Override, and Selective Control
Signals, Software, and Computing Algorithms
Signals
Programming
Scaling Computing Algorithms
Ratio Control
Override, or Constraint, Control
Selective Control
Designing Control Systems
Summary
Problems
Feedforward Control
The Feedforward Concept
Block Diagram Design of Linear Feedforward Controllers
Lead-Lag Element
Back to the Previous Example
Design of Nonlinear Feedforward Controllers from Basic Process Principles
Some Closing Comments and Outline of Feedforward Controller Design
Three Other Examples
Summary
Problems
Multivariable Process Control
Loop Interaction
Pairing Controlled and Manipulated Variables
Calculating the Relative Gains for a 2 x 2 System
Calculating the Relative Gains for an n x n System
Decoupling of Interacting Loops
Decoupler Design from Block Diagrams
Decoupler Design for n x n Systems
Decoupler Design from Basic Principles
Multivariable Control versus Optimization
Dynamic Analysis of Multivariable Systems
Dynamic Analysis of a 2 x 2 System
Controller Tuning for Interacting Systems
Design of Plantwide Control Systems
Summary
Problems
Dynamic Simulation of Control Systems
Uses and Tools of Dynamic Simulation
Uses of Dynamic Simulation
Tools for Dynamic Simulation
Simulation of Linear Transfer Functions
Process Simulation
Simulation of Control Instrumentation
Control Valve Simulation
Simulation of Feedback Controllers
Simulation of Sensors-Transmitters
Simulation of Lead-Lag Dynamic Compensation
Other Simulation Aspects
Summary
Problems
Instrumentation Symbols and Labels
Design Case Studies
Methanol Synthesis Process
Hydrocarbon Process
Fatty Acid Process
Control Systems in the Sugar-Refining Process
Sulfuric Acid Process
Ammonium Nitrate Prilling Plant Control System
Natural Gas Dehydration Control System
Sensors, Transmitters, and Control Valves
Pressure Sensors
Flow Sensors
Level Sensors
Temperature Sensors
Composition Sensors
Transmitters
Pneumatic Transmitters
Electronic Transmitters
Types of Control Valves
Reciprocating Stem
Rotating Stem
Control Valve Actuators
Pneumatically Operated Diaphragm Actuators
Piston Actuators
Electrohydraulic and Electromechanical Actuators
Manual-Handwheel Actuators
Control Valve Accessories
Positioners
Boosters
Limit Switches
Control Valves-Additional Considerations
Viscosity Corrections
Flashing and Cavitation
Summary
Tuning Case Studies
Regenerator Feedback
Regenerator Cascade
Paper-Drying Process
HCl Scrubber
Mixing Process
Reactor Process
Distillation Process
Operating Case Studies
HCl Scrubber
Water Treatment unit
Catalyst Regenerator
Baby Back Ribs
Paper Drying Unit
Index

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