| |

| |

| |

The Engineering Mindset | |

| |

| |

| |

Engineering and Society | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The Engineering Method | |

| |

| |

| |

Science, Mathematics, and Engineering | |

| |

| |

| |

Ingenuity: From Lifting Weights to Microelectronics | |

| |

| |

| |

Engineering Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Networks and Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Everything is Connected to Everything | |

| |

| |

| |

A Web of Innovation | |

| |

| |

| |

Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Engineering Disciplines and Majors | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Overview of Engineering Disciplines | |

| |

| |

| |

Professional Organizations | |

| |

| |

| |

Innovation at the Interfaces Between Disciplines | |

| |

| |

| |

Engineering and Computing | |

| |

| |

| |

Programming and Logical Thinking | |

| |

| |

| |

Number Crunching | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Organization and Representation of Engineering Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

What We Think About How We Think | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: Doing Math in Your Head | |

| |

| |

| |

A Model for Cognitive Processing | |

| |

| |

| |

"How To" Knowledge and Problem Solving | |

| |

| |

| |

Mind and Brain | |

| |

| |

| |

Concept Maps | |

| |

| |

| |

What Is a Concept Map? | |

| |

| |

| |

How to Build a Good Concept Map | |

| |

| |

| |

Hierarchies | |

| |

| |

| |

Representation and Design | |

| |

| |

| |

Purpose, Environment, and Form | |

| |

| |

| |

Requirements, Specifications, and the Forces That Shape a Design | |

| |

| |

| |

Design Hierarchies | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: What Supply for Rural Communities in Developing Nations | |

| |

| |

| |

The Top-Level Problem: Meeting Community Needs | |

| |

| |

| |

A Lower-Level Problem: Design of a Handpump | |

| |

| |

| |

Even Lower-Level Design Details: Seals and Bearings | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Learning and Problem Solving | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Expertise and The Learning Process | |

| |

| |

| |

What Do You Know? Levels of Understanding | |

| |

| |

| |

Knowledge: Recalling Facts from Memory | |

| |

| |

| |

Comprehension: Understanding Meaning | |

| |

| |

| |

Application: Using in New Situations | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis: Breaking Down into Parts | |

| |

| |

| |

Synthesis: Constructing a New Integrated Whole | |

| |

| |

| |

Evaluation: Using Judgment to Make Decisions | |

| |

| |

| |

Social and Societal Responsibilities of Decision Making | |

| |

| |

| |

Getting Good Results from Your Learning Efforts | |

| |

| |

| |

Get Ready to Learn | |

| |

| |

| |

Building a Good Structure for Knowledge | |

| |

| |

| |

Metacognition: Monitoring Your Own Understanding | |

| |

| |

| |

A Framework for Problem Solving | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 0: I Can | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 1: Define | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 2: Explore | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 3: Plan | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 4: Implement | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 5: Check | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 6: Generalize | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Step 7: Present the Results | |

| |

| |

| |

How Much CO Does a Typical Passenger Car Produce? | |

| |

| |

| |

Define | |

| |

| |

| |

Explore | |

| |

| |

| |

Plan | |

| |

| |

| |

Do It | |

| |

| |

| |

Check | |

| |

| |

| |

Generalize | |

| |

| |

| |

Present the Results | |

| |

| |

| |

Planning Larger Projects | |

| |

| |

| |

SolderBaat-A Circuit Board Assembly and Test System | |

| |

| |

| |

Task Scheduling | |

| |

| |

| |

Teamwork and Results | |

| |

| |

| |

Heuristics | |

| |

| |

| |

Write It Down | |

| |

| |

| |

Restate in Simpler Terms | |

| |

| |

| |

Draw a Picture | |

| |

| |

| |

Do You Know a Related Problem? | |

| |

| |

| |

Work Backwards/Forwards | |

| |

| |

| |

Work Top-Down/Bottom-Up | |

| |

| |

| |

Divide and Conquer | |

| |

| |

| |

Check for Unnecessary Constraints | |

| |

| |

| |

Discuss | |

| |

| |

| |

Try Solving a Scaled-Down Version of the Problem | |

| |

| |

| |

Try Solving a Simpler but Related Problem | |

| |

| |

| |

Use Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Guess and Check | |

| |

| |

| |

Use an Analogy | |

| |

| |

| |

Change Your Perspective | |

| |

| |

| |

Look at the Big Picture | |

| |

| |

| |

Do the Easy Parts First | |

| |

| |

| |

Plug in Numbers | |

| |

| |

| |

Keep Track of Progress | |

| |

| |

| |

Change the Representation | |

| |

| |

| |

Replan | |

| |

| |

| |

Pay Attention to Hunches | |

| |

| |

| |

Take a Break | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Model-Based Design | |

| |

| |

| |

Laws of Nature and Theoretical Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Engineering Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Evolution of Theory | |

| |

| |

| |

Models of Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Aristotle's Physics | |

| |

| |

| |

Galileo and the Scientific Method | |

| |

| |

| |

Rene Descartes and Conservation of Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

The Royal Society | |

| |

| |

| |

Huygens' Improvements to Descartes' Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Newton's Laws of Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Leibniz and the "Living Force," Work and Energy | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling the "Spring of Air" | |

| |

| |

| |

The Horror of the Vacuum | |

| |

| |

| |

Boyle's Law | |

| |

| |

| |

Hooke's Law | |

| |

| |

| |

The Birth of the Piston Engine | |

| |

| |

| |

Newcomen's Engine | |

| |

| |

| |

James Watt's Improvements to Newcomen's Design | |

| |

| |

| |

The Science of Thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Sadi Carnot and the Limits of Engine Efficiency | |

| |

| |

| |

James Joule: From Building a Better Brewery to a Theory of Heat and Energy | |

| |

| |

| |

Conservation of Mass | |

| |

| |

| |

Robert Boyle and The Sceptical Chymist | |

| |

| |

| |

Antoine Lavoisier | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis Example: The Internal Combustion Engine | |

| |

| |

| |

Operation of a Four-Stroke Engine | |

| |

| |

| |

Efficiency of the Intake Stroke and Air/Fuel Ratio | |

| |

| |

| |

Efficiency of the Compression Stroke and the Compression Ratio | |

| |

| |

| |

Design Example: The Handpump | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Definition and Plan of Attack | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling Forces on the Piston | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling the Handle Lever Arm | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling Pump Efficiency | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Data Analysis and Empirical Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Theory and Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Validating Boyle's Law | |

| |

| |

| |

Exponential Change, Log Plots, and Moore's Law | |

| |

| |

| |

Empirical Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Running an Experiment | |

| |

| |

| |

Interpolation and Fitting a Line to the Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Using Statistics to Quantify Uncertainty | |

| |

| |

| |

Sources of Uncertainty | |

| |

| |

| |

Mean and Standard Deviation: Systematic and Random Error | |

| |

| |

| |

Estimating Probability | |

| |

| |

| |

Frequency of Results and Histograms | |

| |

| |

| |

The Theory of the Bell Curve | |

| |

| |

| |

Trade Studies: Evaluating Tradeoffs Between Design Variables | |

| |

| |

| |

Methodology: Making and Using Maps | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Definition and Plan of Attack | |

| |

| |

| |

Mapping the Design Space | |

| |

| |

| |

Finding Settings to Satisfy Distance Constraints | |

| |

| |

| |

Minimizing Energy while Launching at a Target | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling Interrelationships in Systems: Lightweight Structures | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The Statics Perspective | |

| |

| |

| |

Force as a Vector | |

| |

| |

| |

Addition of Forces | |

| |

| |

| |

Equilibrium of a Point or Particle | |

| |

| |

| |

Equilibrium of Pinned Joints and Bars | |

| |

| |

| |

Loads, Supports, and Reaction Forces | |

| |

| |

| |

Static Analysis of a Complete Truss | |

| |

| |

| |

The Materials Perspective | |

| |

| |

| |

Bars as Springs: Hooke's Law and Young's Modulus | |

| |

| |

| |

Strength of Materials | |

| |

| |

| |

Buckling | |

| |

| |

| |

Putting It All Together | |

| |

| |

| |

Statics Perspective | |

| |

| |

| |

Materials Perspective | |

| |

| |

| |

Statically Determinate and Indeterminate Trusses | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: A Trade Study of Strength versus Weight in a Truss | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Definition and Plan of Attack | |

| |

| |

| |

Implementation of the Plan | |

| |

| |

| |

Finding an Acceptable Design | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling Interrelationships in Systems: Digital Electronic Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Computing Machines | |

| |

| |

| |

The Logical and Physical Views | |

| |

| |

| |

History and Background | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Circuits from the Symbolic and Logical Perspective | |

| |

| |

| |

Boolean Logic | |

| |

| |

| |

Building Computing Machines Out of Switches | |

| |

| |

| |

Binary Representation of Numbers | |

| |

| |

| |

Adding Numbers with Switches | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Circuits from the Electronics Perspective | |

| |

| |

| |

Electricity | |

| |

| |

| |

Electronic Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Electrical Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Putting It All Together: Design of an Inverter | |

| |

| |

| |

Background | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Definition and Plan of Attack | |

| |

| |

| |

Choosing Device Sizes | |

| |

| |

| |

Calculating Power Consumption | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling Change in Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Predicting the Future: Accumulation of Change | |

| |

| |

| |

The State of a System | |

| |

| |

| |

Euler's Method: Predicting Change from One State to the Next | |

| |

| |

| |

Launching a Softball | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Definition and Plan of Attack | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling the Softball Trajectory Without Drag | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling the Softball Trajectory with Drag | |

| |

| |

| |

Continuous Versus Discrete Models | |

| |

| |

| |

Running Out of Gas | |

| |

| |

| |

Background | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Definition and Plan of Attack | |

| |

| |

| |

Flow Rates and Conservation of Mass | |

| |

| |

| |

Growth at a Constant Rate: Population and Per-Capita Oil Consumption | |

| |

| |

| |

Putting It All Together | |

| |

| |

| |

Will We Really Run Out of Oil by 2040? | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving with Matlab | |

| |

| |

| |

Getting Started with MATLAB | |

| |

| |

| |

Your First MATLAB Session | |

| |

| |

| |

Interpreting Simple Arithmetic Expressions | |

| |

| |

| |

Variables | |

| |

| |

| |

Scripts | |

| |

| |

| |

Examples | |

| |

| |

| |

Determining Velocities After a Collision | |

| |

| |

| |

Mass of CO[subscript 2] Produced by a Car | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Vector Operations in MATLAB | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Operations | |

| |

| |

| |

Defining and Accessing Vectors | |

| |

| |

| |

Element-Wise Arithmetic Operations on Vectors | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: Validating Boyle's Law | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple Two-Dimensional Plots and Graphs | |

| |

| |

| |

Plot Basics | |

| |

| |

| |

Adding Titles and Labels | |

| |

| |

| |

Changing Line Styles | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple Plots on One Set of Axes | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple Sets of Axes in One Figure | |

| |

| |

| |

Plotting Functions | |

| |

| |

| |

Specialized Plotting | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: Plotting the Results of Boyle's Experiment | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: Moore's Law and Log Plots | |

| |

| |

| |

Statistics | |

| |

| |

| |

The Basics: Minimum, Maximum, Averages, etc. | |

| |

| |

| |

Counting Values in a Range | |

| |

| |

| |

Bin Counts and Histograms | |

| |

| |

| |

Where to Learn More | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Matrix Operations in MATLAB | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Operations | |

| |

| |

| |

Defining and Accessing Matrices | |

| |

| |

| |

Element-Wise Arithmetic Operations on Matrices | |

| |

| |

| |

Parameter Sweeps Over Two Variables | |

| |

| |

| |

Creating Tables Using Code meshgrid | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: Force on the Piston of a Pump Versus Well Depth and Cylinder Radius | |

| |

| |

| |

Plotting 3-Dimensional Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Mesh and Surface Plots | |

| |

| |

| |

Contour Plots | |

| |

| |

| |

Side-View Cross-Section Plots | |

| |

| |

| |

Matrix Arithmetic | |

| |

| |

| |

Zero Matrix | |

| |

| |

| |

Equality of Matrices | |

| |

| |

| |

Matrix Addition | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiplication of a Matrix by a Scalar | |

| |

| |

| |

Matrix Subtraction | |

| |

| |

| |

Matrix Multiplication | |

| |

| |

| |

Solving Systems of Linear Equations | |

| |

| |

| |

Linear Equations in Matrix Form | |

| |

| |

| |

The Identity Matrix and the Inverse of a Matrix | |

| |

| |

| |

Solving Matrix Equations Using Inversion | |

| |

| |

| |

Solving Matrix Equations Using the Backslash Operator | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: Analysis of a Truss | |

| |

| |

| |

Example: Analysis of Electrical Circuits | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction to Algorithms and Programming In MATLAB | |

| |

| |

| |

Algorithms, Flow Charts, and Pseudocode | |

| |

| |

| |

What Is an Algorithm? | |

| |

| |

| |

Describing Simple Sequences of Operations | |

| |

| |

| |

Subroutines | |

| |

| |

| |

Conditional Branches | |

| |

| |

| |

Loops | |

| |

| |

| |

MATLAB Functions | |

| |

| |

| |

Mathematical Functions Versus MATLAB Functions | |

| |

| |

| |

Functions Calling Functions | |

| |

| |

| |

Watching a Function Call Through the MATLAB Debugger | |

| |

| |

| |

Conditional Selection Statements | |

| |

| |

| |

Review of Logic Expressions | |

| |

| |

| |

IF/ELSE Statements | |

| |

| |

| |

Stepping Through an IF Statement in the Debugger | |

| |

| |

| |

Loops or Repetition Statements | |

| |

| |

| |

WHILE Loops | |

| |

| |

| |

FOR Loops | |

| |

| |

| |

Watching a Loop in the Debugger | |

| |

| |

| |

Nested Loops | |

| |

| |

| |

Common Loop Bugs | |

| |

| |

| |

Examples of Functions, Conditionals, and Loops | |

| |

| |

| |

Subfunctions: The Cake Recipe | |

| |

| |

| |

Vector and Matrix Functions | |

| |

| |

| |

Accumulation of Change | |

| |

| |

| |

Review: Modeling Population Growth | |

| |

| |

| |

Modeling the Trajectory of a Softball with Drag | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Problem Solving Process | |

| |

| |

| |

Bloom's Taxonomy: Levels of Understanding | |

| |

| |

| |

Engineering Societies and Professional Organizations | |

| |

| |

| |

Systems of Units | |

| |

| |

| |

The SI System | |

| |

| |

| |

Non-SI Units and Conversion Factors | |

| |

| |

Bibliography | |

| |

| |

Index | |