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Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements

ISBN-10: 0471350834
ISBN-13: 9780471350835
Edition: 3rd 2001 (Revised)
List price: $125.95
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Description: This text places an emphasis on the use of uncertainty analysis in the design of measurement systems and the statistical nature of engineering variables.

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Book details

List price: $125.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/31/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 552
Size: 7.32" wide x 10.18" long x 1.07" tall
Weight: 2.332
Language: English

This text places an emphasis on the use of uncertainty analysis in the design of measurement systems and the statistical nature of engineering variables.

Basic Concepts of Measurement Methods
Introduction
General Measurement System
Experimental Test Plan
Variables
Parameters
Noise and Interference
Random Tests
Replication and Repetition
Concomitant Methods
Calibration
Static Calibration
Dynamic Calibration
Static Sensitivity
Range
Accuracy
Precision and Bias Errors
Sequential Test
Random Test
Standards
Basic Dimensions and Their Units
Derived Units
Force
Other Units
Electrical Dimensions
Hierarchy of Standards
Test Standards
Presenting Data
Rectangular Coordinate Format
Semilog Coordinate Format
Full-Log Coordinate Format
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Signals
Introduction
Input-Output Signal Concepts
Classification of Waveforms
Signal Waveforms
Signal Analysis
Effects of Signal-Averaging Period
DC Offset
Signal Amplitude and Frequency
Periodic Signals
Frequency Analysis
Fourier Series and Coefficients
Fourier Coefficients for Functions Having Arbitrary Periods
Fourier Transform and the Frequency Spectrum
Discrete Fourier Transform
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Measurement System Behavior
Introduction
General Model for a Measurement System
Dynamic Measurements
Measurement System Model
Special Cases of the General System Model
Zero-Order Systems
First-Order Systems
Second-Order Systems
Transfer Functions
Phase Linearity
Multiple-Function Inputs
Coupled Systems
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Probability and Statistics
Introduction
Statistical Measurement Theory
Probability Density Functions
Infinite Statistics
Finite Statistics
Standard Deviation of the Means
Pooled Statistics
Chi-Squared Distribution
Precision Interval in a Sample Variance
Goodness-of-Fit Test
Regression Analysis
Least-Squares Regression Analysis
Data Outlier Detection
Number of Measurements Required
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Uncertainty Analysis
Introduction
Measurement Errors
Design-Stage Uncertainty Analysis
Combining Elemental Errors: RSS method
Design-Stage Uncertainty
Error Sources
Calibration Errors
Data-Acquisition Errors
Data-Reduction Errors
Bias and Precision Errors
Bias Error
Precision Error
Uncertainty Analysis: Error Propagation
Propagation of Error
Advanced-Stage and Single-Measurement Uncertainty Analysis
Zero-Order Uncertainty
Higher-Order Uncertainty
Nth-Order Uncertainty
Multiple-Measurement Uncertainty Analysis
Propagation of Elemental Errors
Propagation of Uncertainty to a Result
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements
Introduction
Analog Devices: Current Measurements
Direct Current
Alternating Current
Analog Devices: Voltage Measurements
Analog Meters
Oscilloscope
Potentiometer
Analog Devices: Resistance Measurements
Ohmmeter Circuits
Bridge Circuits
Loading Errors and Impedance Matching
Loading Errors for A Voltage Dividing Circuit
Interstage Loading Errors
Analog Signal Conditioning: Amplifiers
Analog Signal Conditioning: Special Purpose Circuits
Analog Voltage Comparator
Sample and Hold Circuit
Charge Amplifier
Current Loop: 4-20 mA
Multivibrator and Flip-Flop Circuits
Analog Signal Conditioning: Filters
Butterworth Filter Design
Bessel Filter Design
Active Filters
Grounds, Shielding, and Connecting Wires
Ground and Ground Loops
Shields
Connecting Wires
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition
Introduction
Sampling Concepts
Sample Rate
Alias Frequencies
Amplitude Ambiguity
Selecting Sample Rate and Data Number
Digital Devices: Bits and Words
Transmitting Digital Numbers: High and Low Signals
Voltage Measurements
Digital-to-Analog Converter
Analog-to-Digital Converter
Digital Voltmeters
Data-Acquisition Systems
Data-Acquisition System Components
Signal Conditioning: Filters and Amplification
Analog Multiplexers
A/D Converters
D/A Converters
Digital Input-Output
Central Processing Unit: Microprocessor
Memory
Central Bus
Buffers
Analog Input-Output Communication
Data-Acquisition Boards
Single- and Differential-Ended Connections
Special Signal Conditioning Modules
Data-Acquisition Triggering
Data Transfer
Digital Input-Output Communication
Serial Communications
Universal Serial Bus
Parallel Communications
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Temperature Measurements
Introduction
Historical Background
Temperature Standards and Definition
Fixed-Point Temperatures and Interpolation
Temperature Scales and Standards
Thermometry Based on Thermal Expansion
Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
Bimetallic Thermometers
Electrical Resistance Thermometry
Resistance Temperature Detectors
Thermistors
Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement
Seebeck Effect
Peltier Effect
Thomson Effect
Fundamental Thermocouple Laws
Basic Temperature Measurement with Thermocouples
Thermocouple Standards
Thermocouple Voltage Measurement
Multiple-Junction Thermocouple Circuits
Data Acquisition Considerations
Radiative Temperature Measurements
Radiation Fundamentals
Radiation Detectors
Radiative Temperature Measurements
Optical Fiber Thermometers
Physical Errors in Temperature Measurement
Insertion Errors
Recovery Errors in Temperature Measurement
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Pressure and Velocity Measurements
Introduction
Pressure Concepts
Pressure Reference Instruments
McLeod Gauge
Barometer
Manometers
Deadweight Testers
Pressure Transducers
Bourdon Tube
Bellows and Capsule
Diaphragms
Pressure Transducer Calibration
Static Calibration
Dynamic Calibration
Pressure Measurements in Moving Fluids
Total Pressure Measurement
Static Pressure Measurement
Design and Installation: Transmission Effects
Gases
Liquids
Heavily Damped Systems
Fluid Velocity Measuring Systems
Pitot-Static Pressure Probe
Thermal Anemometry
Doppler Anemometry
Selection of Velocity Measuring Methods
Laser Doppler Anemometers
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Flow Measurements
Introduction
Historical Comments
Flow Rate Concepts
Volume Flow Rate Through Velocity Determination
Pressure Differential Meters
Obstruction Meters
Orifice Meter
Venturi Meter
Flow Nozzles
Sonic Nozzles
Obstruction Meter Selection
Laminar Flow Elements
Insertion Volume Flow Meters
Electromagnetic Flow Meters
Vortex Shedding Meters
Rotameters
Turbine Meters
Positive-Displacement Meters
Mass Flow Meters
Thermal Flow Meter
Coriolis Flow Meter
Flow Meter Calibration and Standards
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Strain Measurement
Introduction
Stress and Strain
Resistance Strain Gauges
Metallic Gauges
Semiconductor Strain Gauges
Strain Gauge Electrical Circuits
Practical Considerations for Strain Measurement
The Multiple Gauge Bridge
Bridge Constant
Apparent Strain and Temperature Compensation
Construction and Installation
Analysis of Strain Gauge Data
Signal Conditioning
Uncertainties in Multichannel Measurements
Optical Strain Measuring Techniques
Basic Characteristics of Light
Photoelastic Measurement
Moire Methods
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
Metrology, Motion, Force, and Power Measurements
Introduction
Dimensional Measurements: Metrology
Historical Perspective
Principles of Linear Measurement
Optical Methods
Displacement Measurements
Potentiometers
Linear Variable Differential Transformers
Measurement of Mass
Measurement of Acceleration and Vibration
Seismic Transducer
Transducers for Shock and Vibration Measurement
Velocity Measurements
Linear Velocity Measurements
Velocity from Displacement or Acceleration
Moving Coil Transducers
Angular Velocity Measurements
Force Measurement
Load Cells
Torque Measurements
Measurement of Torque on Rotating Shafts
Mechanical Power Measurements
Rotational Speed, Torque, and Shaft Power
Cradled Dynamometers
Summary
References
Nomenclature
Problems
A Guide for Technical Writing
Property Data and Conversion Factors
Glossary
Index

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