Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis

ISBN-10: 0471228559
ISBN-13: 9780471228554
Edition: 3rd 2004 (Revised)
List price: $139.00 Buy it from $3.00
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Description: This text is useful for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. It provides a holistic, systems-based approach devised to help engineers write problem-solving software.

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Book details

List price: $139.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/20/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 528
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.892

This text is useful for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. It provides a holistic, systems-based approach devised to help engineers write problem-solving software.

Preface to the Third Edition
Basic Real-Time Concepts
Terminology
Systems Concepts
Real-Time Definitions
Events and Determinism
CPU Utilization
Real-Time System Design Issues
Example Real-Time Systems
Common Misconceptions
Brief History
Theoretical Advances
Early Systems
Hardware Developments
Early Software
Commercial Operating System Support
Exercises
Hardware Considerations
Basic Architecture
Hardware Interfacing
Latching
Edge versus Level Triggered
Tristate Logic
Wait States
Systems Interfaces and Buses
Central Processing Unit
Fetch and Execute Cycle
Microcontrollers
Instruction Forms
Core Instructions
Addressing Modes
RISC versus CISC
Memory
Memory Access
Memory Technologies
Memory Hierarchy
Memory Organization
Input/Output
Programmed Input/Output
Direct Memory Access
Memory-Mapped Input/Output
Interrupts
Enhancing Performance
Locality of Reference
Cache
Pipelining
Coprocessors
Other Special Devices
Applications-Specific Integrated Circuits
Programmable Array Logic/Programmable Logic Array
Field-Programmable Gate Arrays
Transducers
Analog/Digital Converters
Digital/Analog Converters
Non-von-Neumann Architectures
Parallel Systems
Flynn's Taxonomy for Parallelism
Exercises
Real-Time Operating Systems
Real-Time Kernels
Pseudokernels
Interrupt-Driven Systems
Preemptive-Priority Systems
Hybrid Systems
The Task-Control Block Model
Theoretical Foundations of Real-Time Operating Systems
Process Scheduling
Round-Robin Scheduling
Cyclic Executives
Fixed-Priority Scheduling-Rate-Monotonic Approach
Dynamic-Priority Scheduling: Earliest-Deadline-First Approach
Intertask Communication and Synchronization
Buffering Data
Time-Relative Buffering
Ring Buffers
Mailboxes
Queues
Critical Regions
Semaphores
Other Synchronization Mechanisms
Deadlock
Priority Inversion
Memory Management
Process Stack Management
Run-Time Ring Buffer
Maximum Stack Size
Multiple-Stack Arrangements
Memory Management in the Task-Control-Block Model
Swapping
Overlays
Block or Page Management
Replacement Algorithms
Memory Locking
Working Sets
Real-Time Garbage Collection
Contiguous File Systems
Building versus Buying Real-Time Operating Systems
Selecting Real-Time Kernels
Case Study: POSIX
Threads
POSIX Mutexes and Condition Variables
POSIX Semaphores
Using Semaphores and Shared Memory
POSIX Messages
Real-Time POSIX Signals
Clocks and Timers
Asynchronous Input and Output
POSIX Memory Locking
Exercises
Software Requirements Engineering
Requirements-Engineering process
Types of Requirements
Requirements Specification for Real-Time Systems
Formal Methods in Software Specification
Limitations of Formal Methods
Z
Finite State Machines
Statecharts
Petri Nets
Requirements Analysis with Petri Nets
Structured Analysis and Design
Object-Oriented Analysis and the Unified Modeling Language
Use Cases
Class Diagram
Recommendations on Specification Approach for Real-Time Systems
Organizing the Requirements Document
Organizing and Writing Requirements
Requirements Validation and Review
Requirements Validation Using Model Checking
Automated Checking of Requirements
Appendix: Case Study in Software Requirements Specification for Four-Way Traffic Intersection Traffic Light Controller System
Exercises
Software System Design
Properties of Software
Reliability
Correctness
Performance
Usability
Interoperability
Maintainability
Portability
Verifiability
Summary of Software Properties and Associated Metrics
Basic Software Engineering Principles
Rigor and Formality
Separation of Concerns
Modularity
Anticipation of Change
Generality
Incrementality
Traceability
The Design Activity
Procedural-Oriented Design
Parnas Partitioning
Structured Design
Design in Procedural Form Using Finite State Machines
Object-Oriented Design
Benefits of Object Orientation
Design Patterns
Object-Oriented Design Using the Unified Modeling Language
Appendix: Case Study in Software Requirements Specification for Four-Way Traffic Intersection Traffic Light Controller System
Exercises
Programming Languages and the Software Production Process
Introduction
Assembly Language
Procedural Languages
Parameter Passing Techniques
Call-by-Value and Call-by-Reference
Global Variables
Recursion
Dynamic Memory Allocation
Typing
Exception Handling
Modularity
Cardelli's Metrics and Procedural Languages
Object-Oriented Languages
Synchronizing Objects
Garbage Collection
Cardelli's Metrics and Object-Oriented Languages
Object-Oriented versus Procedural Languages
Brief Survey of Languages
Ada 95
C
C++
C#
Fortran
Java
Occam 2
Special Real-Time Languages
Know the Compiler and Rules of Thumb
Coding Standards
Exercises
Performance Analysis And Optimization
Theoretical Preliminaries
NP-Completeness
Challenges in Analyzing Real-Time Systems
The Halting Problem
Amdahl's Law
Gustafson's Law
Performance Analysis
Code Execution Time Estimation
Analysis of Polled Loops
Analysis of Coroutines
Analysis of Round-Robin Systems
Response-Time Analysis for Fixed-Period Systems
Response-Time Analysis: RMA Example
Analysis of Sporadic and Aperiodic Interrupt Systems
Deterministic Performance
Application of Queuing Theory
The M/M/1 Queue
Service and Production Rates
Some Buffer-Size Calculations
Response-Time Modeling
Other Results from Queuing Theory
Little's Law
Erlang's Formula
I/O Performance
Basic Buffer-Size Calculation
Variable Buffer-Size Calculation
Performance Optimization
Compute at Slowest Cycle
Scaled Numbers
Binary Angular Measure
Look-Up Tables
Imprecise Computation
Optimizing Memory Usage
Postintegration Software Optimization
Results from Compiler Optimization
Use of Arithmetic Identifies
Reduction in Strength
Common Subexpression Elimination
Intrinsic Functions
Constant Folding
Loop Invariant Optimization
Loop Induction Elimination
Use of Registers and Caches
Removal of Dead or Unreachable Code
Flow-of-Control Optimization
Constant Propagation
Dead-Store Elimination
Dead-Variable Elimination
Short-Circuiting Boolean Code
Loop Unrolling
Loop Jamming
More Optimization Techniques
Combination Effects
Speculative Execution
Analysis of Memory Requirements
Reducing Memory Utilization
Variable Selection
Memory Fragmentation
Exercises
Engineering Considerations
Metrics
Lines of Code
McCabe's Metric
Halstead's Metrics
Function Points
Feature Points
Metrics for Object-Oriented Software
Objections to Metrics
Best Practices
Faults, Failures, and Bugs
The Role of Testing
Testing Techniques
System-Level Testing
Design of Testing Plans
Fault-Tolerance
Spatial Fault-Tolerance
Software Black Boxes
N-Version Programming
Built-In-Test Software
CPU Testing
Memory Testing
ROM
RAM
Other Devices
Spurious and Missed Interrupts
Handling Spurious and Missed Interrupts
The Kalman Filter
Systems Integration
Goals of System Integration
System Unification
System Verification
System Integration Tools
A Simple Integration Strategy
Patching
The Probe Effect
Fault-Tolerant Design: A Case Study
Refactoring Real-Time Code
Conditional Logic
Data Clumps
Delays as Loops
Dubious Constraints
Duplicated Code
Generalizations Based on a Single Architecture
Large Procedures
Lazy Procedure
Long Parameter List
Message-Passing Overload
Self-Modifying Code
Speculative Generality
Telltale Comments
Unnecessary Use of Interrupts
Cost Estimation Using COCOMO
Basic COCOMO
Intermediate and Detailed COCOMO
COCOMO II
Exercises

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