Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems

ISBN-10: 0471204919
ISBN-13: 9780471204916
Edition: 3rd 2005 (Revised)
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Description: Assuming a limited background in the subject, DeMers uses a building block approach to teach the fundamentals of this topical subject. He includes basic cartographic and geographic principles throughout, and covers a wide range of applications.

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Book details

List price: $110.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/5/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 480
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Assuming a limited background in the subject, DeMers uses a building block approach to teach the fundamentals of this topical subject. He includes basic cartographic and geographic principles throughout, and covers a wide range of applications.

Introduction
Introduction to Automated Geography
Learning Objectives
Why Geographic Information Systems?
What Are Geographic Information Systems?
Where Do I Begin?
Terms
Review Questions
References
Geographic Data, Maps, and Automation
Spatial Analysis: The Foundation of Modern Geography
Learning Objectives
Developing Spatial Awareness
Spatial Elements
Spatial Measurement Levels
Spatial Location and Reference
Spatial Patterns
Geographic Data Collection
Populations and Sampling Schemes
Making Inferences From Samples
Terms
Review Questions
References
The Map as a Model of Geographic Data: The Language of Spatial Thinking
Learning Objectives
Map as Model: The Abstraction of Reality
A Paradigm Shift in Cartography
Map Scale
More Map Characteristics
Map Projections
Grid Systems for Mapping
The Cartographic Process
Map Symbolism
Map Abstraction and Cartographic Databases
Some Problems Related to Specific Thematic Maps
Soil Maps
Zoological Maps
Digital Remote Sensing Imagery
Vegetation Maps
Historical Maps
Terms
Review Questions
References
Cartographic and GIS Data Structures
Learning Objectives
A Quick Review of the Map as an Abstraction of Space
Some Basic Computer File Structures
Simple Lists
Ordered Sequential Files
Indexed Files
Computer Database Structures for Managing Data
Hierarchical Data Structures
Network Systems
Relational Database Management Systems
Graphic Representation of Entitites and Attributes
GIS Data Models for Multiple Coverages
Raster Models
Compact Storing of Raster Data
Vector Models
Compacting Vector Data Models
A Vector Model to Represent Surfaces
Hybrid and Integrated Systems
Terms
Review Questions
References
Input, Storage, and Editing
GIS Data Input
Learning Objectives
The Input Subsystem
Input Devices
Raster, Vector, or Both
Reference Frameworks and Transformations
Map Preparation and the Digitizing Process
What to Input
How Much to Input
Methods of Vector Input
Methods of Raster Input
Remote Sensing as a Special Case of Raster Data Input
External Databases
Terms
Review Questions
References
Data Storage and Editing
Learning Objectives
Storage of GIS Databases
The Importance of Editing the GIS Database
Detecting and Editing Errors of Different Types
Entity Errors: Vector
Attribute Errors: Raster and Vector
Dealing with Projection Changes
Joining Adjacent Coverages: Edge Matching
Conflation and Rubber Sheeting
Templating
Terms
Review Questions
References
Analysis: The Heart of the GIS
Elementary Spatial Analysis
Learning Objectives
Introduction to GIS Spatial Analysis
A Simple Analysis Framework
GIS Data Query
Navigating the GIS
Locating and Identifying Spatial Objects
Defining Spatial Characteristics
Point Attributes
Line Attributes
Area Attributes
Working with Higher-Level Objects
Higher-Level Point Objects
Higher-Level Line Objects
Higher-Level Area Objects
Terms
Review Questions
References
Measurement
Learning Objectives
Measuring Length of Linear Objects
Measuring Polygons
Calculating Polygon Lengths
Calculating Perimeter
Calculating Areas of Polygonal Features
Measuring Shape
Measuring Sinuosity
Measuring Polygon Shape
Measuring Distance
Simple Distance
Functional Distance
Terms
Review Questions
References
Classification
Learning Objectives
Classification Principles
Elements of Reclassification
Neighborhood Functions
Roving Windows: Filters
Polygonal Neighborhoods
Immediate Neighborhoods
Extended Neighborhoods
Buffers
Terms
Review Questions
References
Statistical Surfaces
Learning Objectives
What Are Surfaces?
Surface Mapping
Sampling the Statistical Surface
The DEM
Raster Surfaces
Interpolation
Linear Interpolation
Methods of Linear Interpolation
Uses of Interpolation
Problems in Interpolation
Terrain Reclassification
Steepness of Slope
Azimuth or Orientation (Aspect)
Shape or Form
Visibility and Intervisibility
Slicing the Statistical Surface
Cut and Fill
Other Surface Analyses
Discrete Surfaces
Dot Distribution Maps
Choropleth Maps
Dasymetric Mapping
Terms
Review Questions
References
Spatial Arrangement
Learning Objectives
Point, Area, and Line Arrangements
Point Patterns
Quadrant Analysis
Nearest Neighbor Analysis
Thiessen Polygons
Area Patterns
Extending Contiguity Measures: The Join Count Statistic
Other Polygonal Arrangement Measures
Linear Patterns
Line Densities
Nearest Neighbors and Line Intercepts
Directionality of Linear and Areal Objects
Connectivity of Linear Objects
Gravity Model
Routing and Allocation
The Missing Variable: Using Other Coverages
Terms
Review Questions
References
Comparing Variables Among Coverages
Learning Objectives
The Cartographic Overlay
Point-in-Polygon and Line-in-Polygon Operations
Polygon Overlay
Automating the Overlay Pricess
Automating Point-in-Polygon and Line-in-Polygon Procedures in Raster
Automating Polygon Overlay in Raster
Automating Vector Overlay
Types of Overlay
CAD-Type Overlay
Topological Vector Overlay
A Note About Error in Overlay
Dasymetric Mapping
Some Final Notes on Overlay
Terms
Review Questions
References
Cartographic Modeling
Learning Objectives
Model Components
The Cartographic Model
Models in Geography
Types of Cartographic Models
Inductive and Deductive Modeling
Factor Selection
Model Flowcharting
Working Through the Model
Conflict Resolution
Some Example Cartographic Models
Model Implementation
Model Verification
Terms
Review Questions
References
GIS Output
The Output from Analysis
Learning Objectives
Output: The Display of Analysis
Cartographic Output
The Design Process
The Role of Symbols in Design
Graphical Design Principles
Map Design Controls
Nontraditional Cartographic Output
Noncartographic Output
Interactive Output
Table and Charts
Technology and GIS Output
Terms
Review Questions
References
GIS Design
GIS Design and Implementation
Learning Objectives
What is GIS Design?
The Need for GIS Design
Internal and External GIS Design Questions
The Software Engineering Approach
Systems Design Principles
Systems Development Waterfall Model
The Mythical Man-Month
Some General Systems Characteristics
The Institutional Setting for GIS Operations
The Relation Between the System and the Outside World
A Structured Design Model
Technical Design
The Reasons for Conceptual Design
Conceptual Design Shortcomings
People Problems of GIS
Cost-Benefit Issues
Data and Applications Requirements Models
Formal GIS Design Methodology
The Spiral Model: Rapid Prototyping
Overview of the Initial GIS Design Model (Level 1)
GIS Information Products
How Information Products Drive GIS
Organizing the Local Views
Avoiding Design Creep
View Integration
Database Design: General Considerations
Study Area
Scale, Resolution, and Level of Detail
Classification
Coordinate System and Projection
Selecting a System
Verification and Validation
Terms
Review Questions
References
Software and Data Sources
Using the Wiley World Wide Web to Find Data and GIS Examples
Glossary
Photo Credits
Index

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