Physiology and Behaviour of Plants

ISBN-10: 0470850256
ISBN-13: 9780470850251
Edition: 2008
Authors: Peter Scott
List price: $93.95
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Description: Physiology and Behaviour of Plants looks at plants and how they sense and respond to their environment. It takes the traditional plant physiology book into a new dimension by demonstrating how the biochemical observations underlie the behaviour of  More...

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Book details

List price: $93.95
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/10/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 318
Size: 7.75" wide x 10.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.210
Language: English

Physiology and Behaviour of Plants looks at plants and how they sense and respond to their environment. It takes the traditional plant physiology book into a new dimension by demonstrating how the biochemical observations underlie the behaviour of the plant. In many ways the book parallels courses studied at university on animal physiology and behaviour. The plant has to meet the same challenges as an animal to survive, but overcomes these challenges in very different ways. Students learn to think of plants not only as dynamic organisms, but aggressive, territorial organisms capable of long-range communication. Hallmark features include: Based on a successful course that the author has run for several years at Sussex University, UK Relates plant biochemistry to plant function Printed in four colour throughout Includes a wealth of illustrations and photographs that engages the reader's attention and reinforce key concepts explored within the text Presents material in a modern 'topic' based approach, with many relevant and exciting examples to inspire the student An accompanying web site will include teaching supplements This innovative textbook is the ultimate resource for all students in biology, horticulture, forestry and agriculture.

Preface
Introducing plants
The beginning: the evolution of plants and the major divisions
Conquering the land
The evolution of lignin
Plants and mass extinction
Floristic kingdoms, biogeography and biomes
What makes a plant?
Structure of the whole plant
Structure of the plant cell
Chloroplasts and other plastids
The vacuole
Microbodies
The cell wall
Plasmodesmata
Photosynthesis: the ultimate in autotrophy
Light harvesting
Leaf form
Chlorophyll and the chloroplast
Converting light energy into chemical energy
Photosystem I
Photosystem II
The Calvin cycle
The cycle and its functions
Regeneration
CO[subscript 2] fixation or carboxylation
Synthetic flux
Regulatory enzymes
The remarkable role of RUBISCO
Photorespiration
The troubles with photosynthesis
The solution to the problem
Carbohydrate synthesis and storage
The major carbohydrates of photosynthesis
Sucrose
Starch
The fate of carbon fixed during photosynthesis
The efficiency of photosynthesis
Non-photosynthetic metabolism
Phloem transport
Structure of the phloem
Phloem loading
Phloem unloading
Coping with damage to the phloem
The sink tissues
How is sink strength dictated?
Metabolism of carbohydrate
Respiration
Storage of carbohydrate or lipid
Potatoes and starch storage
Bananas and starch storage and ripening
Sugarcane and the storage of sucrose
Grapes and developing fruit
Peanuts and lipid storage
Growth and the synthesis of cell components
Sink regulation of photosynthesis
Roots and the uptake of water
Types of root
Functions of roots
Structure of roots
Shoot and root growth
Interaction with the soil
Uptake of water
Osmosis
Loading and movement in the xylem
Structure of the xylem
Cohesion-tension theory of water movement in the xylem
Transpiration rates
Cavitation
Stomata
Stomatal function
Mineral nutrition of plants
Soil structure and mineral ions
General ion uptake
Phosphorus uptake and assimilation
Nitrogen uptake and assimilation
Amino acid synthesis
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation
Iron uptake and assimilation
Sulphur uptake and assimilation
Function and effects of deficiencies of mineral ions on plants
Major elements
Other important major elements
Minor elements
Mycorrhizal associations and saprophytic nutrition
Mycorrhizal associations
Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal associations
Orchidaceous mycorrhizal associations
Ectomycorrhiza
Ericaceous mycorrhiza
Ericoid mycorrhiza
Arbutoid mycorrhiza
Monotropoid mycorrhiza
Ectendomycorrhiza
Development of the mycorrhizal association
The role of the mycorrhizal association
Saprophytic nutrition
Parasitic plants
Establishing a parasitic relationship
Facultative parasitic plants
Obligate parasitic plants - hemiparasites
Obligate parasitic plants - holoparasites
Parasitic species other than the dicotyledons
Carnivorous plants
Carnivory: the search for a definition
Why have some plants turned to carnivory?
Trapping mechanisms
The pitfall trap - North American pitcher plant
Active spring trap - bladderworts
Sticky flypaper - sundews
Asexual and sexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
Roots
Stems
Leaves
Apomixis
Sexual reproduction
Wind-based pollination
Insect-based pollination
Pollination
Mechanisms for improving cross-fertilization
Self-incompatibility mechanisms
Gametophytic incompatibility
Sporophytic incompatibility
Seed development
Plant growth
Types of growth
Cell division and the cell cycle
Polyploidy in plants
Seed formation and germination
The dividing meristem
Shoot apical meristem
Leaf primordia
Root apical meristem
The origin of root hairs
The origin of lateral roots
Flower development
Vascular cambium and secondary growth
Intercalary meristem
Cell death
Plant growth regulators and cell growth
Plant movement
Tropism and nastic movements
Tropic movements
Auxins and plant movement
Phototropism
Heliotropism
Gravitropism
Sensing gravity
Hydrotropism
Thigmotropism
Chemotropism
Nastic movements
Nyctinasty (sleep movements)
Seismonasty
Thermonasty
Epinasty
Circumnutation
Plants and stress
Adaptations to drought stress
Crassulacean acid metabolism
C4 photosynthesis
Resurrection plants
Adaptations to salt stress
Adaptations to flooding stress and anoxia
Adaptations to cold stress
Adaptations to heat stress
Plant senses and perceiving the world
Sensing light (sight)
Protochlorophyllide
Phytochromes
Seed germination
Shade-avoidance response
How do phytochromes work?
Phytochromes and ion movement
Phytochromes and regulation of gene expression
Cryptochrome
Sensing time
Circadian clock
Photoperiodism
Sensing touch (feeling)
Sensing wind and vibrations
Sensing chemicals (taste)
Communicating (smell)
Ethylene
Ripening fruits
Pathogenic defence and stress responses
Abscission
Detection of ethylene
Jasmonic acid
Nitric oxide
Sensing sounds (hearing)
Seed dispersal, dormancy and germination
Seed dispersal
Gravity-mediated dispersal
Wind-mediated dispersal
Water-mediated dispersal
Animal-mediated dispersal
Importance of post-dispersal mechanisms
Dormancy and germination
Recalcitrant seeds
Dormant seeds
Factors governing dormancy and germination
Presence of germination inhibitors
Presence of inhibitory tissues
Presence of germination promoters
Light
Temperature
Oxygen
Soil conditions
Gibberellic acid
Cytokinins
Ethylene
Smoke signals
Pyrogenic flowering
Serotiny
The role of heat in fires
Chemicals in smoke that trigger germination
Interactions with the animal kingdom
Animal-mediated pollination
Mimicry in plants
Batesian mimicry
Mimicry of toxic or poisonous species
Rewardless flowering
Lithops
Grass species as crop weeds
Mullerian mimicry
Aggressive mimicry
Egg mimics
The bee orchids
Pollination in the Araceae
Seed dispersal and food reserves: the role of humans
Plant defences
Physical defence structures
The cuticle
The cell wall
The cell wall as a passive barrier
The cell wall as an active barrier
Poisons by injection or touch
Chemical defences
Terpenes
Pyrethrins
Phenolic-based defence chemicals
Coumarins
Isoflavenoids
Tannins
Nitrogen-containing organic compounds
Non-protein amino acids
Proteinase and amylase inhibitors
Cyanogenic glycosides
Glycosinolates
Lectins
Alkaloids
Defence reactions and signal pathways
Jasmonic acid
Salicylic acid
Systemin
Phytoalexins
Allelopathy
Recognizing self
Mimicry and the enrolment of other organisms for protection
Plants and medicines
Doctrine of signatures
Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis)
Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus)
Viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare)
Common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris)
Sage (Salvia officinalis)
Ethnobotany
The origins of aspirin
The origins of antimalarial drugs
St. John's Wort (Hypericum spp.)
Natural alternatives to Viagra
Natural treatments for AIDS
A cure for certain cancers
Vincristine and vinblastine
Etoposide and teniposide
Topotecan and irinotecan
Taxol
Sustainable development of medicines from plants
Plant tissue culture and the rise of plant biotechnology
The development of plant tissue culture media
Components of the medium
Major elements
Minor elements
Carbohydrates
Vitamins
Plant growth regulators
Auxins
Cytokinins
Gibberellins
Abscisic acid
Tissue culture sterility
Types of plant tissue culture
Applications of plant tissue culture
Micropropagation
Cloning
Genetic manipulation
Hybridization
Dihaploid plants
Removal of viruses from plant tissues
Generation of somaclonal variation
Remarkable plants
Insect mimicry in the orchidaceae
Venus flytrap
The oldest and biggest plants in the world
Tallest plants
Cycads
Welwitschia mirabilis
The castor bean plant
Garlic
Theobroma cacao
Wheat and agriculture
Glossary
Index

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