Fundamentals of Medicinal Chemistry

ISBN-10: 0470843071
ISBN-13: 9780470843079
Edition: 2003
Authors: Gareth Thomas
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Description: Provides a concise introduction to the chemistry of therapeutically active compounds, written in a readable and accessible style. The title begins by reviewing the structures and nomenclature of the more common classes of naturally occurring  More...

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Book details

List price: $58.00
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/7/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 302
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Provides a concise introduction to the chemistry of therapeutically active compounds, written in a readable and accessible style. The title begins by reviewing the structures and nomenclature of the more common classes of naturally occurring compounds found in biological organisms. An overview of medicinal chemistry is followed by chapters covering the discovery and design of drugs, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, The book concludes with a chapter on organic synthesis, followed by a brief look at drug development from the research stage through to marketing the final product. The text assumes little in the way of prior biological knowledge. relevant biology is included through biological topics, examples and the Appendices. Incorporates summary sections, examples, applications and problems Each chapter contains an additional summary section and solutions to the questions are provided at the end of the text Invaluable for undergraduates studying within the chemical, pharmaceutical and life sciences.

Gareth Thomas was born in 1974. He played rugby union for Bridgend, Celtic Warriors, Toulouse and Cardiff Blues, winning 100 international caps for Wales and captaining the British and Irish Lions. In 2010 he switched to rugby league, playing for the Crusaders RL, and for Wales. He retired from rugby in October 2011. Gareth announced publicly in 2009 that he is gay, and was voted the most influential gay person by Stonewall that year. He is a dedicated supporter of the charity Childline.

Preface
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations/Acronyms
Biological Molecules
Introduction
Amino acids
Introduction
Structure
Nomenclature
Peptides and proteins
Structure
Carbohydrates
The structure of monosaccharides
The nomenclature of monosaccharides
Glycosides
Polysaccharides
The nomenclature of polysaccharides
Naturally occurring polysaccharides
Lipids
Introduction
Fatty acids
Acylglycerols (glycerides)
Steroids
Terpenes
Phospholipids
Glycolipids
Nucleic acids
Introduction
DNA, structure and replication
Genes and the human genome project
RNA, structure and transcription
Classification and function of RNA
Questions
An Introduction to Drugs and their Action
Introduction
What are drugs and why do we need new ones?
Drug discovery and design, a historical outline
Sources of drugs and lead compounds
Natural sources
Drug synthesis
Market forces and 'me-too drugs'
Classification of drugs
Routes of administration, the pharmaceutical phase
Introduction to drug action
The pharmacokinetic phase
Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Elimination
Bioavailability of a drug
The pharmacodynamic phase
Questions
An Introduction to Drug Discovery
Introduction
Stereochemistry and drug design
Structurally rigid groups
Conformation
Configuration
Solubility and drug design
The importance of water solubility
Solubility and drug structure
Salt formation
The incorporation of water solubilizing groups in a structure
The type of group
Reversibly and irreversibly attached groups
The position of the water solubilizing group
Methods of introduction
Questions
The SAR and QSAR Approaches to Drug Design
Structure-activity relationships (SARs)
Changing size and shape
Introduction of new substituents
The introduction of a group in an unsubstituted position
The introduction of a group by replacing an existing group
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs)
Lipophilicity
Partition coefficients (P)
Lipophilic substitution constants ([pi])
Electronic effects
The Hammett constant ([sigma])
Steric effects
The Taft steric parameter (E[subscript s])
Molar refractivity (MR)
Other parameters
Hansch analysis
Craig plots
The Topliss decision tree
Questions
Computer Aided Drug Design
Introduction
Molecular modelling methods
Computer graphics
Molecular mechanics
Creating a molecular model using molecular mechanics
Molecular dynamics
Conformational analysis
Quantum mechanics
Docking
Questions
Combinatorial Chemistry
Introduction
The design of combinatorial syntheses
The general techniques used in combinatorial synthesis
The solid support method
Parallel synthesis
Furka's mix and split technique
Encoding methods
Sequential chemical tagging methods
Still's binary code tag system
Computerized tagging
Combinatorial synthesis in solution
Screening and deconvolution
Questions
Selected Examples of Drug Action at some Common Target Areas
Introduction
Examples of drugs that disrupt cell membranes and walls
Antifungal agents
Azoles
Allylamines
Phenols
Antibacterial apents
Ionophoric antibiotic action
Cell wall synthesis inhibition
Drugs that target enzymes
Reversible inhibihors
Irreversible inhibition
Transition state inhibitors
Drugs that target receptors
Agonists
Antagonists
Partial agonists
Drugs that target nucleic acids
Antimetabolites
Enzyme inhibitors
Intercalation agents
Alkylating agents
Antisense drugs
Chain cleaving agents
Antiviral drugs
Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors
Host cell penetration inhibitors
Inhibitors of viral protein synthesis
Questions
Pharmacokinetics
Introduction to pharmacokinetics
General classification of pharmacokinetic properties
Pharmacokinetics and drug design
Pharmacokinetic models
Intravascular administration
Intravenous injection (IV bolus)
Clearance and its significance
Intravenous infusion
Extravascular administration
Single oral dose
The calculation of t[subscript max] and C[subscript max]
Repeated oral doses
The use of pharmacokinetics in drug design
Questions
Drug Metabolism
Introduction
The stereochemistry of drug metabolism
Biological factors affecting metabolism
Environmental factors affecting metabolism
Species and metabolism
Secondary pharmacological implications of metabolism
Sites of action
Phase I metabolic reactions
Oxidation
Reduction
Hydrolysis
Hydration
Other Phase I reactions
Phase II metabolic routes
Pharmacokinetics of metabolites
Drug metabolism and drug design
Prodrugs
Bioprecursor prodrugs
Carrier prodrugs
The design of prodrug systems for specific purposes
Improving absorption and transport through membranes
Improving patient acceptance
Slow release
Site specificity
Minimizing side effects
Questions
An Introduction to Lead and Analogue Syntheses
Introduction
Asymmetry in syntheses
The use of non-stereoselective reactions to produce stereospecific centres
The use of stereoselective reactions to produce stereospecific centres
General methods of asymmetric synthesis
Methods that use catalysts to obtain stereoselectivity
Methods that do not use catalysts to obtain stereoselectivity
Designing organic syntheses
An introduction to the disconnection approach
Questions
Drug Development and Production
Introduction
Chemical development
Chemical engineering issues
Chemical plant, health and safety considerations
Synthesis quality control
A case study
Pharmacological and toxicological testing
Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics
Formulation development
Production and quality control
Patent protection
Regulation
Questions
Appendix
Sickle-cell anaemia
Bacteria
Cell membranes
Receptors
Transfer through membranes
Regression analysis
Enzymes
Prostaglandins
Cancer
Viruses
Blood-brain barrier
Enzyme structure and species
Answers to Questions
Selected Further Reading
Index

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