Terrestrial Hydrometeorology

ISBN-10: 0470659378
ISBN-13: 9780470659373
Edition: 2012
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Book details

Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 1/6/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 472
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.530
Language: English

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
Terrestrial Hydrometeorology and the Global Water Cycle
Introduction
Water in the Earth system
Components of the global hydroclimate system
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Cryosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Anthroposphere
Important points in this Chapter
Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Introduction
Latent heat
Atmospheric water vapor content
Ideal Gas Law
Virtual temperature
Saturated vapor pressure
Measures of saturation
Measuring the vapor pressure of air
Important points in this Chapter
Vertical Gradients in the Atmosphere
Introduction
Hydrostatic pressure law
Adiabatic lapse rates
Dry adiabatic lapse rate
Moist adiabatic lapse rate
Environmental lapse rate
Vertical pressure and temperature gradients
Potential temperature
Virtual potential temperature
Atmospheric stability
Static stability parameter
Important points in this Chapter 34
Surface Energy Fluxes
Introduction
Latent and sensible heat fluxes
Energy balance of an ideal surface
Net radiation, Rn
Latent heat flux, lE
Sensible heat flux, H
Soil heat flux, G
Physical energy storage, St
Biochemical energy storage, P
Advected energy, Ad
Flux sign convention
Evaporative fraction and Bowen ratio
Energy budget of open water
Important points in this Chapter
Terrestrial Radiation
Introduction
Blackbody radiation laws
Radiation exchange for 'gray’ surfaces
Integrated radiation parameters for natural surfaces
Maximum solar radiation at the top of atmosphere
Maximum solar radiation at the ground
Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation
Actual solar radiation at the ground
Longwave radiation
Net radiation at the surface
Height dependence of net radiation
Important points in this Chapter
Soil Temperature and Heat Flux
Introduction
Soil surface temperature
Subsurface soil temperatures
Thermal properties of soil
Density of soil, rs
Specific heat of soil, cs
Heat capacity per unit volume, Cs
Thermal conductivity, ks
Thermal diffusivity, as
Formal description of soil heat flow
Thermal waves in homogeneous soil
Important points in this Chapter
Measuring Surface Heat Fluxes
Introduction
Measuring solar radiation
Daily estimates of cloud cover
Thermoelectric pyranometers
Photoelectric pyranometers
Measuring net radiation
Measuring soil heat flux
Measuring latent and sensible heat
Micrometeorological measurement of surface energy fluxes
Bowen ratio/energy budget method
Eddy correlation method
Evaporation measurement from integrated water loss
Evaporation pans
Watersheds and lakes
Lysimeters
Soil moisture depletion
Comparison of evaporation measuring methods
Important points in this Chapter
General Circulation Models
Introduction
What are General Circulation Models?
How are General Circulation Models used?
How do General Circulation Models work?
Sequence of operations
Solving the dynamics
Calculating the physics
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Important points in this Chapter
Global Scale Influences on Hydrometeorology
Introduction
Global scale influences on atmospheric circulation
Planetary interrelationship
Latitudinal differences in solar energy input
Seasonal perturbations
Daily perturbations
Persistent perturbations
Contrast in ocean to continent surface exchanges
Continental topography
Temporary perturbations
Perturbations in oceanic circulation
Perturbations in atmospheric content
Perturbations in continental land cover
Latitudinal imbalance in radiant energy
Lower atmosphere circulation
Latitudinal bands of pressure and wind
Hadley circulation
Mean low-level circulation
Mean upper level circulation
Ocean circulation
Oceanic influences on continental hydroclimate
Monsoon flow
Tropical cyclones
El Ni�o Southern Oscillation
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
North Atlantic Oscillation
Water vapor in the atmosphere
Important points in this Chapter
Formation of Clouds
Introduction
Cloud generating mechanisms
Cloud condensation nuclei
Saturated vapor pressure of curved surfaces
Cloud droplet size, concentration and terminal velocity
Ice in clouds
Cloud formation processes
Thermal convection
Foehn effect
Extratropical fronts and cyclones
Cloud genera
Important points in this Chapter
Formation of Precipitation
Introduction
Precipitation formation in warm clouds
Precipitation formation in other clouds
Which clouds produce rain?
Precipitation form
Raindrop size distribution
Rainfall rates and kinetic energy
Forms of frozen precipitation
Other forms of precipitation
Important points in this Chapter
Precipitation Measurement and Observation
Introduction
Precipitation measurement using gauges
Instrumental errors
Site and location errors
Gauge designs
Areal representativeness of gauge measurements
Snowfall measurement
Precipitation measurement using ground-based radar
Precipitation measurement using satellite systems
Cloud mapping and characterization
Passive measurement of cloud properties
Spaceborne radar
Important points in this Chapter
Precipitation Analysis in Time
Introduction
Precipitation climatology
Annual variations
Intra-annual variations
Daily variations
Trends in precipitation
Running means
Cumulative deviations
Mass curve
Oscillations in precipitation
System signatures
Intensity-duration relationships
Statistics of extremes
Conditional probabilities
Important points in this Chapter
Precipitation Analysis in Space
Introduction
Mapping precipitation
Areal mean precipitation
Isohyetal method
Triangle method
Theissen method
Spatial organization of precipitation
Design storms and areal reduction factors
Probable maximum precipitation
Spatial correlation of precipitation
Important points in this Chapter
Mathematical and Conceptual Tools of Turbulence
Introduction
Signature and spectrum of atmospheric turbulence
Mean and fluctuating components
Rules of averaging for decomposed variables
Variance and standard deviation
Measures of the strength of turbulence
Mean and turbulent kinetic energy
Linear correlation coefficient
Kinematic flux
Advective and turbulent fluxes
Important points in this Chapter
Equations of Atmospheric Flow in the ABL
Introduction
Time rate of change in a fluid
Conservation of momentum in the atmosphere
Pressure forces
Viscous flow in fluids
Axis-specific forces
Combined momentum forces
Conservation of mass of air
Conservation of atmospheric moisture
Conservation of energy
Conservation of a scalar quantity
Summary of equations of atmospheric flow
Important points in this Chapter
Equations of Turbulent Flow in the ABL
Introduction
Fluctuations in the ideal gas law
The Boussinesq approximation
Neglecting subsidence
Geostrophic wind
Divergence equation for turbulent fluctuations
Conservation of momentum in the turbulent ABL
Conservation of moisture, heat, and scalars in the turbulent ABL
Neglecting molecular diffusion
Important points in this Chapter
Observed ABL Profiles: Higher Order Moments
Introduction
Nature and evolution of the ABL
Daytime ABL profiles
Nighttime ABL profiles
Higher order moments
Prognostic equations for turbulent departures
Prognostic equations for turbulent kinetic energy
Prognostic equations for variance of moisture and heat
Important points in this Chapter
Turbulent Closure, K Theory, and Mixing Length
Introduction
Richardson number
Turbulent closure
Low order closure schemes
Local, first order closure
Mixing length theory
Important points in this Chapter
Surface Layer Scaling and Aerodynamic Resistance
Introduction
Dimensionless gradients
Obukhov length
Flux-gradient relationships
Returning fluxes to natural units
Resistance analogues and aerodynamic resistance
Important points in this Chapter
Canopy Processes and Canopy Resistances
Introduction
Boundary layer exchange processes
Shelter factors
Stomatal resistance
Energy budget of a dry leaf
Energy budget of a dry canopy
Important points in this Chapter
Whole Canopy Interactions
Introduction
Whole-canopy aerodynamics and canopy structure
Excess resistance
Roughness sublayer
Wet canopies
Equilibrium evaporation
Evaporation into an unsaturated atmosphere
Important points in this Chapter
Daily Estimates of Evaporation
Introduction
Daily average values of weather variables
Temperature, humidity, and wind speed
Net radiation
Open water evaporation
Reference crop evapotranspiration
Penman-Monteith equation estimation of ERC
Radiation-based estimation of ERC
Temperature-based estimation of ERC
Evaporation pan-based estimation of ERC
Evaporation from unstressed vegetation: the Matt-Shuttleworth approach
Evaporation from water stressed vegetation
Important points in this Chapter
Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Schemes
Introduction
Basis and origin of land-surface sub-models
Developing realism in SVATS
Plot-scale, one-dimensional 'micrometeorological’ models
Improving representation of hydrological processes
Improving representation of carbon dioxide exchange
Ongoing developments in land surface sub-models
Important points in this Chapter
Sensitivity to Land Surface Exchanges
Introduction
Influence of land surfaces on weather and climate
A. The influence of existing land-atmosphere interactions
Effect of topography on convection and precipitation
Contribution by land surfaces to atmospheric water availability
B. The influence of transient changes in land surfaces
Effect of transient changes in soil moisture
Effect of transient changes in vegetation cover
Effect of transient changes in frozen precipitation cover
Combined effect of transient changes
C. The influence of imposed persistent changes in land cover
Effect of imposed land cover change on near surface observations
Effect of imposed land-cover change on regional-scale climate
Effect of imposed heterogeneity in land cover
Important points in this Chapter
Example Questions and Answers
Introduction
Example questions
Example Answers
Index

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