Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

ISBN-10: 0470091134

ISBN-13: 9780470091135

Edition: 2006

List price: $123.00
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Description: Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behavior. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear discipline:Covers thermochemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions;Introduces combustion to the fire protection student;Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition;Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire;Describes the theoretical bases for empirical aspects of the subject of fire;Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer;Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modeling in fire.Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena is an invaluable reference tool for practising engineers in any aspect of safety or forensic analysis. Fire safety officers, safety practitioners and safety consultants will also find it an excellent resource. In addition, this is a must-have book for senior engineering students and postgraduates studying fire protection and fire aspects of combustion.

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Book details

List price: $123.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/21/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 460
Size: 6.69" wide x 10.00" long x 1.17" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

Preface
Nomenclature
Introduction to Fire
Fire in History
Fire and Science
Fire Safety and Research in the Twentieth Century
Outlook for the Future
Introduction to This Book
Thermodynamics
Fluid mechanics
Heat and mass transfer
Supportive references
References
Problems
Thermochemistry
Introduction
Chemical Reactions
Gas Mixture
Conservation Laws for Systems
Constant pressure reaction
Heat of combustion
Adiabatic flame temperature
Heat of Formation
Application of Mass and Energy Conservation in Chemical Reactions
Combustion Products in Fire
References
Problems
Conservation Laws for Control Volumes
Introduction
The Reynolds Transport Theorem
Relationship between a Control Volume and System Volume
Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Mass for a Reacting Species
Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume
Problems
Premixed Flames
Introduction
Reaction Rate
Autoignition
Piloted Ignition
Flame Speed, S[subscript u]
Measurement techniques
Approximate theory
Fuel lean results
Heat loss effects and extinction
Quenching Diameter
Flammability Limits
Empirical Relationships for the Lower Flammability Limit
A Quantitative Analysis of Ignition, Propagation and Extinction
Autoignition calculations
Piloted ignition calculations
Flame propagation and extinction calculations
Quenching diameter calculations
References
Problems
Spontaneous Ignition
Introduction
Theory of Spontaneous Ignition
Experimental Methods
Time for Spontaneous Ignition
References
Problems
Ignition of Liquids
Introduction
Flashpoint
Dynamics of Evaporation
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
Evaporation Rates
References
Problems
Ignition of Solids
Introduction
Estimate of Ignition Time Components
Chemical time
Mixing time
Pyrolysis
Pure Conduction Model for Ignition
Heat Flux in Fire
Typical heat flux levels
Radiation properties of surfaces in fire
Convective heating in fire
Flame radiation
Heat flux measurements
Heat flux boundary conditions
Ignition in Thermally Thin Solids
Criterion for thermally thin
Thin theory
Measurements for thin materials
Ignition of a Thermally Thick Solid
Thick theory
Measurements for thick materials
Autoignition and surface ignition
Ignition Properties of Common Materials
References
Problems
Fire Spread on Surfaces and Through Solid Media
Introduction
Surface Flame Spread - The Thermally Thin Case
Transient Effects
Surface Flame Spread for a Thermally Thick Solid
Experimental Considerations for Solid Surface Spread
Opposed flow
Wind-aided
Some Fundamental Results for Surface Spread
Examples of Other Flame Spread Conditions
Orientation effects
Porous media
Liquid flame spread
Fire spread through a dwelling
References
Problems
Burning Rate
Introduction
Diffusive Burning of Liquid Fuels
Stagnant layer
Stagnant layer solution
Burning rate - an eigenvalue
Diffusion Flame Variables
Concentrations and mixture fractions
Flame temperature and location
Convective Burning for Specific Flow Conditions
Radiation Effects on Burning
Property Values for Burning Rate Calculations
Suppression and Extinction of Burning
Chemical and physical factors
Suppression by water and diluents
The Burning Rate of Complex Materials
Control Volume Alternative to the Theory of Diffusive Burning
Condensed phase
Gas phase
General Considerations for Extinction Based on Kinetics
A demonstration of the similarity of extinction in premixed and diffusion flames
Applications to Extinction for Diffusive Burning
References
Problems
Fire Plumes
Introduction
Buoyant Plumes
Governing equations
Plume characteristic scales
Solutions
Combusting Plumes
Finite Real Fire Effects
Turbulent axial flame temperatures
Plume temperatures
Entrainment rate
Flame height
Jet flames
Flame heights for other geometries
Transient Aspects of Fire Plumes
Starting plume
Fireball or thermal
References
Problems
Compartment Fires
Introduction
Scope
Phases of fires in enclosures
Fluid Dynamics
General flow pattern
Vent flows
Heat Transfer
Convection
Conduction
Radiation
Overall wall heat transfer
Radiation loss from the vent
Fuel Behavior
Thermal effects
Ventilation effects
Energy release rate (firepower)
Zone Modeling and Conservation Equations
Conservation relationships
Dimensionless factors in a solution
Correlations
Developing fires
Fully developed fires
Semenov Diagrams, Flashover and Instabilities
Fixed area fire
Second item ignition
Spreading fires
References
Problems
Scaling and Dimensionless Groups
Introduction
Approaches for Establishing Dimensionless Groups
Buckingham pi method
Partial differential equation (PDE) method
Dimensional analysis
Dimensionless Groups from the Conservation Equations
Conservation of mass
Conservation of momentum
Energy equation
Heat losses
Mass flows
Liquid droplets
Chemical species
Heat flux and inconsistencies
Summary
Examples of Specific Correlations
Plume interactions with a ceiling
Smoke filling in a leaky compartment
Burning rate
Compartment fire temperature
Effect of water sprays on fire
Scale Modeling
Froude modeling
Analog scaling methods
References
Appendix
Flammability Properties
Archibald Tewarson
Index
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