Cognitive Neuroscience The Biology of the Mind

ISBN-10: 0393977773
ISBN-13: 9780393977776
Edition: 2nd 2002
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Description: This second edition uses an interdisciplinary approach to understanding how the human mind works. Throughout the text, clinical case studies are presented to humanise the scientific content.

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company, Incorporated
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 1
Size: 9.00" wide x 11.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.826

This second edition uses an interdisciplinary approach to understanding how the human mind works. Throughout the text, clinical case studies are presented to humanise the scientific content.

Michael S. Gazzaniga is Professor of Psychology and Director of the SAGE Center for the Study of Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara, Co-Director of the Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience, and President of the Cognitive Neuroscience Institute.

George R. Mangun is Professor of Psychology and Neurology and Dean of Social Sciences at the University of California, Davis, and Director of the Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience.

Boxes
Preface
Acknowledgments
A Brief History of Cognitive Neuroscience
Pondering the Big Questions
The Brain Story
The Twentieth Century
The Psychological Story
Cognitive Neuroscience
The Sudden Rise of Brain Imaging
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Cognition
Cells of the Nervous System
The structure of neurons
The role of glial cells
Neuronal Signaling
Overview of neuronal communication
Properties of the neuronal membrane and the membrane potential
Electrical conduction in neurons
Transmembrane proteins: Ion channels and pumps
Synaptic Transmission
Chemical transmission
Electrical transmission
Neurotransmitters
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Gross and Functional Anatomy of Cognition
Neuroanatomy
Methods in neuroanatomy
Gross and Functional Anatomy of the Nervous System
Cerebral cortex
Limbic system, basal ganglia, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and diencephalon
Brainstem
Cerebellum
Spinal cord
Autonomic nervous system
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
The Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience
What is Cognitive Psychology?
Mental representations and transformations
Characterizing mental operations
Constraints on information processing
Computer Modeling
Models are explicit
Representations in computer models
Models lead to testable predictions
Limitations with computer models
Experimental Techniques Used with Animals
Single-cell recording
Lesions
Genetic manipulations
Neurology
Structural imaging of neurological damage
Causes of neurological disorders
Functional neurosurgery
Converging Methods
Cognitive deficits following brain damage
Virtual lesions: Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Functional imaging
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Perception and Encoding
Disorders of Perception: A Case Study
Overview of Neural Pathways
The eye, retina, and receptors
From the eye to the central nervous system
Parallel Processing in the Visual System
Organization of the lateral geniculate nucleus
Multiple pathways in the visual cortex
Cortical Visual Areas
Cellular correlates of visual features
Imaging visual areas in humans
Analysis and representation of visual features
Deficits in Feature Perception
Deficits in color perception: Achromatopsia
Deficits in motion perception: Akinetopsia
Deficits in other aspects of visual perception
Independent or Convergent Pathways
Dissociations of Cortical and Subcortical Visual Pathways
Spatial orientation and object perception in the hamster
Blindsight: Evidence of residual visual function following cortical blindness
Functions of the retino-collicular pathway in humans
Auditory Perception
Overview of the auditory pathways
Computational goals in audition
Concurrent processing for sound localization
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Higher Perceptual Functions
Agnosia: A Case Study
Two Cortical Pathways for Visual Perception
Representational differences between the dorsal and ventral pathways
Perception for identification versus perception for action
Computational Problems in Object Recognition
Variability in sensory information
View-dependent or view-invariant recognition?
Shape encoding
Grandmother cells and ensemble coding
Summary of computational issues
Failures of Object Recognition
Subtypes of agnosia
Integrating parts into wholes
Category specificity in agnosia
Computational account of category-specific deficits
Prosopagnosia
Are faces special?
Neural mechanisms for face perception
Dissociations of face and object perception
Two systems for object recognition
The Relationship Between Visual Perception, Imagery, and Memory
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Selective Attention and Orienting
Theoretical Models of Attention
The cocktail party effect
Early- versus late-selection theories
Quantifying attention in perception
Neural Systems in Attention and Selective Perception
Neurophysiology of human attention
Animal studies of attentional mechanisms
Neurology and Neuropsychology of Attention
Extinction and neglect
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Learning and Memory
Theories of Memory
Sensory and short-term memory mechanisms
Models of short-term memory
Models of long-term memory
Summary of theories of memory
Memory and Brain
Human memory, brain damage, and amnesia
Summary of amnesia and long-term memory systems
Animal models of memory
Imaging the human brain and memory
Cellular Bases of Learning and Memory
Long-term potentiation and the hippocampus
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Language and the Brain
Theories of Language
The storage of words and concepts: The mental lexicon
Perceptual analyses of the linguistic input
The recognition of words
Integration of words in sentences
Speech production
Neuropsychology of Language and Language Disorders
Aphasia
Neurophysiology of Language
Functional neuroimaging of language
Electrophysiology of language
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Cerebral Lateralization and Specialization
Dividing the Mind
Principles of Cerebral Organization
Anatomical correlates of hemispheric specialization
Microanatomical investigations of anatomical asymmetries
How the Two Hemispheres Communicate
Cortical disconnection
Functional consequences of the split-brain procedure
Specificity of callosal function
Hemispheric Specialization
Language and speech
Visuospatial processing
Attention and perception
Converging Evidence of Hemispheric Specialization
Functional asymmetries in patients with unilateral cortical lesions
Functional asymmetries in the normal brain
What Is Lateralized?
Asymmetries in perceptual representations
Asymmetries in representing spatial relations
Recent theoretical developments concerning hemispheric specialization
Variations in Hemispheric Specialization
The relation between handedness and left-hemisphere language dominance
Hemispheric specialization in nonhumans
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
The Control of Action
Motor Structures
Muscles, motor neurons, and the spinal cord
Subcortical motor structures
Cortical regions involved in motor control
The organization of motor areas
Computational Issues in Motor Control
Peripheral control of movement and the role of feedback
The representation of movement plans
Physiological Analysis of Motor Pathways
The neural representation of movement
Comparison of Motor Planning and Execution
Internal versus external guidance of movement
Shift in cortical control with learning
Functional Analysis of the Motor System and Movement Disorders
Cortical areas
Subcortical areas: The cerebellum and basal ganglia
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes
Subdivisions of the Frontal Lobes
The Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and Working Memory
Distinguishing between stored knowledge and activated information
Working memory versus associative memory
The Prefrontal Cortex Participates in Other Memory Domains
The frontal lobes and the temporal organization of memory
Source memory
Component Analysis of Prefrontal Cortex
Content-based accounts of functional specialization within lateral prefrontal function
Process-based accounts of functional specialization within lateral prefrontal function
The selection of task-relevant information
Goal-Oriented Behavior
Planning and selecting an action
The anterior cingulate as a monitoring system
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Emotion
Issues in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion
Defining emotion
Manipulating and measuring emotion
Emotion and cognition
Neural Systems in Emotional Processing
Early concepts: The limbic system
Orbitofrontal cortex
Amygdala
Laterality
Emotional communication
Affective style
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Evolutionary Perspectives
Evolution of the Brain
The historical underpinning of contemporary evolutionary neurobiology
Modern evolutionary neurobiology: Assumptions and aims
First Principles
Evolutionary mechanisms
The Comparative Approach
The scale of nature revisited
Adaptation and the Brain
Adaptations at multiple brain levels
Sexual selection and evolutionary pressures on behavior
Sexual abilities and spatial abilities
Evolution and physiology
Adaptive specializations and learning mechanisms
Evolutionary Insights into Human Brain Organization
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Development and Plasticity
The Shaping of the Brain
Perceptual and Cognitive Development
A classic theory of cognitive development
Development of visual cognition--Object recognition
Development of the human attention system
Language acquisition during development
Summary of cognitive development
Development of the Nervous System
Overview of gross development
Genesis of the cerebral cortex
Birth of new neurons throughout life
Postnatal brain development
Summary of cortical development
Plasticity in the Nervous System
Plasticity in the normal adult brain
Reorganization in human cortex
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
The Problem of Consciousness
Philosophical Perspectives
Conscious Versus Unconscious Processing
The extent of subconscious processing
Gaining access to consciousness
Neurons, Neuronal Groups, and Conscious Experience
The Emergence of the Brain Interpreter in the Human Species
Is consciousness a uniquely human experience?
Left- and right-hemisphere consciousness
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Suggested Readings
Glossary
References
Acknowledgments and Credits
Index

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