Materials Science of Semiconductors

ISBN-10: 0387256539
ISBN-13: 9780387256535
Edition: 2008
Authors: Angus Rockett
List price: $109.00 Buy it from $29.90
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Description: The book reviews the most relevant concepts of semiconductor materials and processing including condensed matter physics, electronic device theory, and materials science. It describes the development of energy bands from atomic orbitals and the  More...

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Book details

List price: $109.00
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 11/30/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 622
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.178
Language: English

The book reviews the most relevant concepts of semiconductor materials and processing including condensed matter physics, electronic device theory, and materials science. It describes the development of energy bands from atomic orbitals and the effect of atomic chemistry on the semiconductor. Semiconductor alloys are described including issues of miscibility, ordering, and electronic properties. Defects in semiconductors are described with particular emphasis on point and line defects, their sources and effects. A chapter on amorphous semiconductors is included as well as a chapter on organic materials used in optical and switching devices. The book concludes with chapters on general aspects of thin film nucleation and growth, physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition methods. Examples of the application of the concepts in each chapter to specific problems or situations is included, along with recommended readings and homework problems.

Angus Rockett is a Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a fellow of the AVS and teaches short courses and tuitorials for the AVS, MRS and IEEE. He has in excess of 120 published journal articles and conference proceedings and has conducted research in a wide variety of thin film and electronic materials topics. He received a B.S. in Physics from Brown University in 1980 and a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in Materials Science in 1986. He has been a visiting scientist at the Uppsala University in Sweden, the Hahn Meitner Institute in Berlin, Germany and has served as a senior program administrator at the U.S. Department of Energy in Germantown, Maryland.

Preface
Objectives
Topics and use of the book
Acknowledgements
An Environment of Challenges
Overview
A history of modern electronic devices
An issue of scale
Defining electronic materials
Purity
Performance
Summary points
Homework problems
Suggested readings & references
The Physics of Solids
Electronic band structures of solids
Free electrons in solids
Free electrons in a periodic potential
Nearly free electrons
Energy vs. momentum in 3d
Electrons and holes
Direct and indirect semiconductors
Effective mass
Density of states
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
Intrinsic semiconductors
Extrinsic semiconductors
Properties and the band structure
Resistance, capacitance, and inductance
Optical properties
Thermal properties
Quantum wells and confined carriers
Summary points
Homework
Suggested readings & references
Overview of Electronic Devices
Diffusion and drift of carriers
Chemical potential
Carrier motion in a chemical potential gradient
Simple diodes
The junction contact potential
Biased junctions
Non-ideal diode behaviors
Schottky barriers and ohmic contacts
Ideal metal/semiconductor junctions
Real schottky diodes
Semiconductor heterojunctions
Heterojunctions at equilibrium
Heterojunctions as diodes
Transistors
Bipolar junction transistors
Field-effect transistors
Light-emitting devices
Light-emitting diodes
Laser diodes
Summary
Homework problems
Suggested readings & references
Aspects of Materials Science
Structures of materials
Crystal lattices
The reciprocal lattice
Basic thermodynamics of materials
Phase diagrams
Kinetics
Reaction kinetics
Nucleation
Atomic transport
Organic molecules
Applications
A basis for phase transformations
Silicon crystal fabrication
Rapid thermal processing
Summary points
Homework
Suggested Readings and References
Engineering Electronic Structure
Linking atomic orbitals to bands
Homopolar semiconductors
Heteropolar compounds
LCAO: from atomic orbitals to bands
Common semiconductor energy bands
Pressure and temperature dependence
Applications
Experimental band structures
Gunn diodes
Summary points
Homework
Suggested readings & references
Semiconductor Alloys
Alloy selection
Overview
Choosing alloy constituents
Semiconductor alloy thermodynamics
Regular solution theory revisited
Ternary and quaternary solutions
More mechanisms for alloy ordering
Band gap bowing
Binary and pseudobinary alloys
Bowing in quaternary alloys
Silicon-germanium alloys
Structure and solubility
Band gap engineering
Alloying and carrier mobility
Metastable semiconductor alloys
Applications
Heterojunction bipolar transistors
Solar cells
Summary points
Homework
Suggested readings & references
Defects in Semiconductors
Point defects
Electronic states due to point defects
Shallow levels
Depth of intrinsic defects
Ionization of defects
Point defect densities
Vacancies and dopant diffusivity
Line defects
Strain relief in heterostructures
Energetics of strain relief
Misfit dislocations
Dislocation dynamics
Reducing problems due to strain relief
Planar and volume defects
Twins and stacking faults
Surfaces, interfaces, grain boundaries
Volume defects
SiC: a case study in stacking faults
Summary points
Homework
Suggested readings & references
Amorphous Semiconductors
Structure and bonding
Hydrogenated amorphous Si
Deposition methods for a-Si
Electronic properties
Carrier transport and mobility
Mobility measurements
Doping
Short-range order
Optical properties
Amorphous semiconductor Alloys
Applications
Thin film transistors
Solar cells
Summary points
Homework
Suggested readings and references
Organic Semiconductors
Materials overview
Conjugated organic materials
Ionized organic molecular structures
Overview of organic devices
Light emitting devices
Transistors
Molecular optoelectronic materials
Molecular electron transporters
Molecular hole transporters
Dye molecules
Molecules for thin film transistors
Polymer optoelectronic organics
Polymers for organic light emitting devices
Polymers for transistors
Contact to organic materials
The cathode contact
The anode contact
Defects in organic materials
Patterning organic materials
Summary points
Homework
Suggested readings & references
Thin Film Growth Processes
Growth processes
Gas phase transport
Adsorption
Desorption
Sticking coefficient & surface coverage
Nucleation & growth of thin films
Surface diffusion
Surface energy
Morphology determined by nucleation
Microstructure evolution
Residual stress and adhesion
Applications
Adsorption, desorption and binding of H to Si
Surface processes in GaAs epitaxial growth
Summary points
Homework problems
Suggested readings & references
Physical Vapor Deposition
Evaporation
Basic system geometries
Sources
Vapor pressure
Monitoring deposition rates
Simple rate monitoring methods
Reflection high-energy electron diffraction
Sputtering
Sputtering yield
Energetic particles
Sputtering systems
Glow discharge basics
Fast particle modification of films
Application
Summary points
Homework problems
Suggested readings & references
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Overview
CVD apparatus
Gas flow in CVD reactors
Reactant selection and design
Stimulated CVD
Selective CVD
Atomic layer deposition
Sample CVD and ALD processes
Summary points
Homework problems
Suggested readings & references
Appendix
Useful constants
Units
Unit conversions
Index

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