Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats

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Description: The book provides details on carbohydrates, fiber, dietary fats and fatty acids, energy, protein and amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, while also reviewing the importance of adequate amounts of water. Specifically, it includes: - Updated  More...

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Book details

List price: $149.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 7/1/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 424
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.344
Language: English

The book provides details on carbohydrates, fiber, dietary fats and fatty acids, energy, protein and amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, while also reviewing the importance of adequate amounts of water. Specifically, it includes: - Updated estimates of requirements for all nutrients.- Factors affecting food intake.- Commentary on nutrient metabolism, toxicity, deficiency, and nutritionally related disease.- Impacts of physiologic status, temperature, breed, age, physical activity, and environment on nutrition.- Unique biological characteristics affecting nutrient digestion and utilization.- Considerations of feed ingredients, diet formulation, and feed processing and manufacturing.- Principles of feeding pet and laboratory animals. The committee also reviews advances in dog and cat nutrition since the last edition was published in the mid-1980's, discusses government regulation of the dog and cat food market, and deals with a variety of issues of interest.

Overview
Comparative Digestive Physiology of Dogs and Cats
Introduction
Digestive Compartments and Functions
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Gastric Emptying
Small Intestine, Pancreas, and Liver
Large Intestine
Hormonal Aspects of Digestion
Measurement of, and Factors Affecting, Digestibility
References
Feeding Behavior of Dogs and Cats
Food Ingestion by Feral Dogs and Cats
Diurnal Rhythms, and Feeding and Drinking Patterns
Role of Imprinting and Social Factors on Feeding Behavior
Dietary Choice, Palatability, Learned Taste Aversions, and Preferences
Control of Food Intake
Feeding Recommendations
References
Energy
Introduction
Energy Evaluation and Requirements: Two Ways of Looking at the Issue
Energy Evaluation
Methods of Estimating Energy in Food
Prediction of Energy Content
Energy Requirements of Dogs
Definitions
Basis for Establishing Energy Requirements
Basal Metabolic Rate
Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Resting Fed Metabolic Rate
Adult Maintenance
Gestation
Lactation
Growth
Physical Activity
Energy Requirements of Cats
Basis for Establishing Energy Requirements
Basal Metabolic Rate and Dietary Thermogenesis
Adult Maintenance
Gestation
Lactation
Growth
Energy Deficiency and Excess in Dogs and Cats
Body Condition
References
Carbohydrates and Fiber
Definition, Classification, and Measurement
Absorbable Carbohydrates
Digestible Carbohydrates
Fermentable Carbohydrates
Nonfermentable Carbohydrates
Absorbable Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides and Sugar Alcohols)
Presence in Foodstuffs
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilization
Nutritive Value
Physicochemical Effects
Physiological Effects
Health-Related Characteristics
Digestible Carbohydrates (Disaccharides, Certain Oligosaccharides, and Nonstructural Polysaccharides)
Presence in Foodstuffs
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilization
Nutritive Value
Physicochemical Effects
Physiological Effects
Health-Related Characteristics
Fermentable Carbohydrates (Lactose, Certain Oligosaccharides, Dietary Fibers, and Resistant Starch)
Presence in Foodstuffs
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilization
Nutritive Value
Physicochemical Effects
Physiological Effects
Health-Related Characteristics
Poorly Fermentable Carbohydrates (Cellulose and Wheat Bran)
Presence in Foodstuffs
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilization
Nutritive Value
Physicochemical Effects
Physiological Effects
Health-Related Characteristics
Carbohydrates in Dog and Cat Diet Formulations
References
Fat and Fatty Acids
Importance of Dietary Fats and Fatty Acids
Types and Sources of Dietary Fats and Fatty Acids
Nomenclature
Sources
Trans Fatty Acids
Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols
Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Other Sources
Analytical Procedures
Acid Hydrolysis
Extraction and Saponification of Fatty Acids
Extraction for Total Lipid Analysis
Fat Energy and Nutrient Density
Digestion and Absorption
Preduodenal Lipase
Pancreatic Lipase
Other Lipases
Summary of Triacylglycerol Hydrolysis
Absorption
Digestibility
Biochemical Basis of Fatty Acid Essentiality
Biosynthesis
Desaturation and Elongation
Fatty Acid Ratios
Essential Fatty Acid Utilization for Structure and Function
Comparative Studies
Membrane Composition and Integrity
Lipid-Protein Interactions
Eicosanoid Production
Growth and Development
Canine Studies
Signs of Deficiency or Excess
Skin and Hair Coat
Inflammatory and Immune Cell Structure and Function
Feline Studies
Signs of Deficiency or Excess
Evidence for Limited [Delta]6 Desaturase Activities
Dietary LCPUFA and Feline Life Stage
Immune, Inflammatory, and Platelet Cell Functions
Requirements, Recommendations, and Allowances
Essential Fatty Acids for Dogs and Cats
Dogs
Fat Content of Diets: Preferences, Minima, and Maxima
Growth
Adult Maintenance
Gestation and Lactation
Cats
Fat Content of Diets: Preferences, Minima, and Maxima
Growth
Adult Maintenance
Gestation and Lactation
References
Protein and Amino Acids
Basic Concepts
Introduction
Structure and Function
Essentiality of Amino Acids
Digestibility and Bioavailability of Protein and Amino Acids
Assessing Protein and Amino Acid Status
Requirements, Allowances, and Tolerances of Protein and Amino Acids
Role of Metabolic Adaptation in Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition
Nitrogen (Crude Protein) Minimum Requirements, Recommended Allowances, and Adequate Intakes
Amino Acid Minimum Requirements, Recommended Allowances, Adequate Intakes, and Safe Upper Limits
Dispensable Amino Acids
Amino Acid Imbalances and Antagonisms
References
Minerals
Introduction
Minerals and Acid-Base Balance
Macrominerals
Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
Trace Minerals
Iron
Copper
Zinc
Manganese
Selenium
Iodine
Other Minerals
Arsenic
Boron
Chromium
Molybdenum
Silicon
Nickel
Vanadium
Miscellaneous Minerals
References
Vitamins
Introduction
Vitamin A
Absorption, Transport, and Storage
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Vitamin D
Absorption, Transport, and Storage
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Vitamin E
Absorption
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Vitamin K
Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Thiamin (Vitamin B[subscript 1])
Absorption
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Riboflavin
Absorption
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Vitamin B[subscript 6]
Absorption, Transport, and Storage
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Niacin
Absorption
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Pantothenic Acid
Absorption, Transport, and Storage
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Cobalamin (Vitamin B[subscript 12])
Absorption
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Folic Acid
Absorption, Transport, and Storage
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Biotin
Absorption
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Choline
Absorption
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Ascorbic Acid
Biological Function
Dogs
Cats
Vitamin-Like Substances
Vitamin Losses During Processing and Storage of Dog and Cat Foods
References
Water
General Principles
Function
Regulation of Intake by Dogs and Cats
Deficiency in Dogs and Cats
Requirements of Dogs
Requirements for Maintenance
Requirements for Other Life Stages
Requirements for Work and Environmental Stress
Requirements of Cats
Requirements for Maintenance and Other Life Stages
Water and Feline Lower Urinary Tract Health
Recommended Allowances
Toxicity in Dogs and Cats
References
Special Considerations for Laboratory Animals
Requirements
Energy
Nutrients Other Than Energy
Food Selection
General
Certified Diets
Purified and Chemically Defined Diets
Foods for Specific Dietary Purposes (e.g., Medical Foods)
Feeding Management
Life-Stage Designation of Food
Form of Food
Amount Fed
Frequency of Feeding
Storage of Food
References
Physical Activity and Environment
Introduction
Calculations and Assumptions
How Much Exercise Do Dogs and Cats Undertake?
Dogs
Cats
Types of Exercise: Sprinting Versus Endurance
Sprint Exercise Over a Distance of Less Than One Kilometer
Endurance Exercise Over Distances Greater Than One Kilometer
Traditional Diets Fed to Racing Dogs
Sled Dogs
Greyhounds
Diet and Health During Exercise
Effect of Exercise on Intestinal Function
Exercise and Digestibility
When to Feed Exercising Dogs
Exercise and Body Condition
Effect of Confinement and Training
Energy Requirements
Minimal Metabolism
Anxiety
Circadian Rhythms
Cold-Induced Thermogenesis
Nutrients in a Warm Environment
Effect of Reduced Oxygen at High Altitude
Effect of Exercise on Energy Requirements
Effect of Exercise on Energy Required in the Absence of Exercise
Energy Required for Exercise: Dynamic Exercise (Short Runs) Versus Steady-State Exercise (Long Runs)
Maximal Oxygen Consumption
Intensity of Exercise
Field Metabolic Rate
Nutrient Requirements
How May Nutrient Requirements Change with Exercise or in the Cold?
Sources of Energy: Fat Versus Carbohydrate
Protein and Exercise
Studies That Have Altered Both Fat and Protein in the Diet of Exercising Dogs
Dietary Carbohydrate and Exercise
Importance of Water and Water Requirements at High Ambient Temperatures
Exercised-Induced Hyperthermia and the Importance of Water During Exercise
Water Requirements at Rest and During Exercise
Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride
Fluids Containing Electrolytes
Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium
Trace Minerals
Vitamins
Other Nutrients
References
Diet Formulation and Feed Processing
Petfood Processing
General Considerations
Dogs
Cats
Petfood Categories
Dry Petfoods
Semi-moist Petfoods
Soft-Expanded (Soft Dry) Petfoods
Baked Petfoods
Starch-Lipid Complexes
Snacks for Pets
Canned (Wet) Petfoods
Homemade Diets
Diet Formulation
Summary
References
Nutrient Composition of Ingredients Used in Dog and Cat Foods
References
Other Food Constituents
Constituents Intended for Nutritive Value
Introduction
Chondroprotective Agents
Antioxidants
Probiotics (Direct-Fed Microbials) and Enzymes
Herbs and Botanicals
Other
Constituents Intended for Technical or Nonnutritive Effects on Food
Introduction
Preservatives
Flavors and Extracts
Colors
Other Additives
References
Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Nutrient Concentrations
Use of Nutrient Requirement Tables
Recommendations Relative to ME Compared with Requirements Relative to DM
Requirements Relative to ME in the Food Compared with Requirements Relative to BW
Note on Bioavailability
References
Appendixes
About the Authors
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Index

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