Archaeologist's Laboratory The Analysis of Archaeological Data

ISBN-10: 0306463695
ISBN-13: 9780306463693
Edition: 2000
Authors: E. B. Banning
List price: $129.00 Buy it from $117.44
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Description: This text reviews the theory, concepts, and basic methods involved in archaeological analysis with the aim of familiarizing both students and professionals with its underlying principles. Topics covered include the nature and presentation of data;  More...

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Book details

List price: $129.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 5/31/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 318
Size: 8.75" wide x 10.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

This text reviews the theory, concepts, and basic methods involved in archaeological analysis with the aim of familiarizing both students and professionals with its underlying principles. Topics covered include the nature and presentation of data; database and research design; sampling and quantification; analyzing lithics, pottery, faunal, and botanical remains; interpreting dates; and archaeological illustration. A glossary of key terms completes the book.

Introduction
Compilations
Explanations
Analytical Strategies
References Cited
What Are Data?
Scales of Measurement
Measurement Errors and Uncertainty
Accuracy, Precision, and Reliability
Significant Digits
Other Sources of Error
Outliers
Direct and Indirect Measurement
Descriptive Statistics
Measuring Dispersion
Accumulating Errors
Graphic Summaries of Data
Tables
Box-and-Dot Plots and Stem-and-Leaf Plots
Bar Graphs
Histograms
Line Graphs
Cumulative Frequency Graphs (Ogives)
Scatterplots
Pie Charts (Circle Graphs)
Windflowers and Rose Plots
Spatial Histograms and Isopleth Maps
General Principles in Creating Graphs
Transformations and Problems of Scale
References Cited
Systematics, Compilations, and Database Design
Systematics
Paradigmatic Classification
Taxonomy
Grouping
Bounded Grouping
Central-Tendency Methods
Attribute Association
Types or Classes?
Practical Considerations in Typology
Compilations: Database Design
Information Language
Graphical Information Languages
Digital Information Languages
Database Design
Database Structure
Data Flow Diagrams
Data Dictionaries
Hypermedia and Hypertext
Hypermedia and Relational Databases
Hypermedia and Multimedia
Conclusion
References Cited
Research Design and Sampling
Research Design
Sampling
Defining Populations of Interest
Sampling Frame and Sample Elements
Sampling Strategies
The Paradox of Archaeological Sampling
An Example of the Effect of Autocorrelation on Cluster Samples
Sampling Fraction and Sample Size
Nonrandom Samples and Exchangeability
Checklist for Sampling
Nonsampling Research
Conclusion
References Cited
Quantification: Abundance and Other Measures in Archaeology
Assessing Abundance in Samples
Number of Identified Specimens (NISP)
The Shotwell Measure and WAE
Mass
Area Measurement
Density and Ratios
Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI)
Minimum Number of Elements (MNE)
Estimates of Population Parameters
The Krantz Estimator
The Peterson Estimator
Completeness Indices and Estimated Equivalents (PIE)
Total Minimum Animal Units (TMAU)
Indirect Measures
Yield Estimates
Nonabundance Measures
Ubiquity
Diversity
Conclusion
References Cited
Probability and Testing Statistical Hypotheses
"Verifying" Hypotheses
Probability
Parametric Tests
The Z-Test
Tests Based on Other Distributions
Bayesian Inference
Conclusion
References Cited
Basic Artifact Conservation
Artifacts in the Burial Environment
Collecting Artifacts in the Field
Handling Artifacts in the Laboratory
Simple Cleaning of Artifacts
Storage of Archaeological Collections
Collection Monitoring and Condition Census
Conservation Documentation
Pottery Refitting
Removing Samples for Analysis
Ethical Issues
References Cited
Analysing Lithics
La Chaine Operatoire
Lithic Raw Material
Fracture Mechanics and Stone Tool Manufacture
The Anatomy of Flakes
Lithic Attributes
Attributes of Cores
Attributes of Flakes and Blanks
Attributes of Retouched Tools
Attributes of Waste and Debris
Illustrating Lithic Attributes
The Replication of Stone Tools
Ground-Stone Tools
The Manufacture of Ground-Stone Tools
The Anatomy of Common Ground-Stone Tools
Some Attributes of Ground-Stone Tools
Research on Chipped and Ground Lithics
The Function and Use of Stone Tools
Economizing Behavior and Design in Stone Tools
Style in Stone Tools
Non-Use Alteration of Lithics
Conclusions
References Cited
Analysing Pottery
The Anatomy of a Pot
Measuring Vessel Form
Ceramic Technological Analysis
Body Preparation
Construction of the Vessel
Primary Forming
Secondary Forming
Finishing Techniques
Drying and Firing the Vessels
Functional Analysis
Stylistic Analysis
Other Approaches to Pottery
Conclusions
References Cited
Analysing Osteological and Other Faunal Remains
Types of Faunal Remains
Taphonomy and Faunal Assemblages
Animal Taxonomy
Mammalian Anatomy
Axial Parts
Appendicular Parts
Teeth
Anatomy of Birds
Anatomy of Bony Fish
Anatomy of Molluscs
Identifying Taxa
Determining Sex
Age at Death
Seasonality
Paleoecology
Biostratigraphy
Domestication of Animals
Taxonomic Abundance--Menu Preference
Elemental Abundance--Choice of Cut
Butchering Practices
Mortality Profiles--Hunting Strategies and Herd Management
Paleopathology
Trace Elements, Isotopes, and Diet
Conclusion
References Cited
Analysing Plant Remains
Types of Plant Remains
Macrofossils
Seeds and Nuts
Wood Charcoal and Parenchymous Parts
Microfossils
Chemical Traces
Plant Taphonomy and Preservation
Ecological Archaeology and Reconstructing Paleoenvironments
Reconstructing Paleodiets and Plant Use
Plant Domestication
Agricultural History and Land Use
Plant Processing and Agricultural Activity
Seasonality
Chronology
Conclusions
References Cited
Soils, Sediments, and Geomorphology
Soils and Sediments
Lithostratigraphy and Archaeological Stratigraphy
Texture and Particle Characteristics
Particle Shape
Sediment Color
pH
Phosphates
Geomorphology and Site-Formation Processes
Environmental Interpretation
Cultural Interpretation
Stratigraphic Correlations
Conclusions
References Cited
Seriation
Multidimensional Scaling and Correspondence Analysis
A Bayesian Approach to Seriation
The Use and Interpretation of Seriations
References Cited
Stratigraphy
The Harris Matrix
Grouping Stratigraphic Units
Associating Noncontiguous Stratigraphic Units
Conclusions
References Cited
Interpreting Radiocarbon Dates
Kinds of Dates and Events
What are Radiocarbon "Dates"?
Date Calibration
Comparing Dates
Radiocarbon Software
Combining Radiocarbon and Stratigraphic Evidence
Summary
References Cited
Archaeological Illustration
Early Archaeological Illustration
Styles of Representation and Basic Conventions
Basic Equipment and Supplies
Lithic Illustration
Pottery Illustration
Illustrating "Small Finds"
Maps and Plans
Stratigraphic Sections
Computer Scanners
Computer Graphics
Preparing Graphics for Publication
Conclusions
References Cited
Glossary
Index

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