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Symmetry, Causality, Mind

ISBN-10: 0262621312
ISBN-13: 9780262621311
Edition: N/A
Authors: Michael Leyton
List price: $61.00
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Description: Michael Leyton's arguments about the nature of perception and cognition are fascinating, exciting, and sure to be controversial. In this investigation of the psychological relationship between shape and time, Leyton argues compellingly that shape is  More...

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Book details

List price: $61.00
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 4/1/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 640
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Michael Leyton's arguments about the nature of perception and cognition are fascinating, exciting, and sure to be controversial. In this investigation of the psychological relationship between shape and time, Leyton argues compellingly that shape is used by the mind to recover the past and as such it forms a basis for memory. He elaborates a system of rules by which the conversion to memory takes place and presents a number of detailed case studies - in perception, linguistics, art, and even political subjugation - that support these rules. Leyton observes that the mind assigns to any shape a causal history explaining how the shape was formed. We cannot help but perceive a deformed can as a dented can. Moreover, by reducing the study of shape to the study of symmetry, he shows that symmetry is crucial to our everyday cognitive processing. Symmetry is the means by which shape is converted into memory. Perception is usually regarded as the recovery of the spatial layout of the environment. Leyton, however, shows that perception is fundamentally the extraction of time from shape. In doing so, he is able to reduce the several areas of computational vision purely to symmetry principles. Examining grammar in linguistics, he argues that a sentence is psychologically represented as a piece of causal history, an archeological relic disinterred by the listener so that the sentence reveals the past. Again through a detailed analysis of art he shows that what the viewer takes to be the experience of a painting is in fact the extraction of time from the shapes of the painting. Finally he highlights crucial aspects of the mind's attempt to recover time in examples of political subjugation. Michael Leyton is a professor in the Psychology Department at Rutgers University. He is a recipient of the Presidential Young Investigatory Award for outstanding work in cognitive science.

Michael Leyton is a professor in the Psychology Department at Rutgers University. He is a recipient of the Presidential Young Investigatory Award for outstanding work in cognitive science.

Acknowledgments
Introduction
Recovering Process-History
Seeing Objects as History
The Process-Recovery Problem
Process Directionality
The Fundamental Proposals
Conforming to the Uni-Directionality Requirement
Atemporal-Temporal Duality
The Second System Principle
Uni-Directionality and the Second System Principle
Curvature and Process
Symmetry in Complex Shape
Symmetry-Curvature Duality
Process Direction
From Curvature Extrema to History
Application
Partitioning into Asymmetry and Symmetry
The Asymmetry in Curvature Variation
The Generality of Processes
Transversality or Symmetry-Curvature Duality?
History from Non-Smooth Curves
Goodness
Summary
Traces
Recovery from Several States
Internal Structure
Environmental Validity
Trace Structure
The Symmetry-to-Trace Conversion Principle
The Externalization Principle
Prototypes
Intervening History
Continuations
Bifurcations
The Complete Grammar
The Process Stratification of Shape-Space
Application of the Grammar
History Minimization
Two Asymmetries?
Energy and Causal Interactions
Energy as Memory
Shape and Energy
The Energy Correlates of External and Internal Inference
Inferring Temporal Order
Temporal Order in Inference from a Single Shape
Temporal Order in Intervening History
Summary
Radical Computational Vision
Introduction
Standard Computational Vision
Radical Computational Vision
Layers of Memory
What is the Present Environment?
Three Crucial Layers of Asymmetry
The Radical Computational Vision Thesis
Shape-from-Shading
Image-Formation
Orientation and Brightness
Shading as Symmetry-Breaking
Further History from Shading
Shape-from-Texture
Projective Asymmetrization
Compression
Scaling
The Total Asymmetry
Texture and Uniformity
Shape-from-Texture as the Recovery of Time
How Many Uniformity Assumptions?
Asymmetry in the Environmental Texture
Externalization of Texture
Shape-from-Contour
Shape-from-Stereo
Interpolation
Sources of Depth Data
"No News is Good News"
Energy and Interpolation
Edges as Memory
Noise as Memory
Five Processes
Energy Minimization
Externalization
Shape-from-Motion
Two Motion Problems
The Two-Dimensional Problem
The Three-Dimensional Problem
Summary
Representation Is Explanation
The Representation-is-Explanation Principle
The Well-Definedness Principle
The Representational Machine Analogy
Two Machine Analogies
Some Comments
Evidence from Contemporary Cognitive Science
Perception
Categorization
Language
Planning
What is the Future?
Cognition and Symbols
Time Required to Construct Causal Explanations
How Machines Embody Causal Interactions
Machines as History
The Construction of Temporality
Temporality from Atemporality
The Return to Perception
Temporal Construction as Program Construction
Programs
Structured Programming
Three Basic Control Structures
Modularization
Nested Control
Replacing Selection by Repetition
Summary
Groups and Symmetry
Introduction
The Symmetry Group of a Triangle
Four Basic Properties
The Symmetry Group of a Square
The Symmetry Group of a Regular Planar Polygon
Cyclic Groups
The Reflection Group
The Continuous Rotation Group
Translations Along a Line
Translations in the Plane
Euclidean Motions
Linear Transformations
The Affine Group
Summary
Domain-Independent Rules
Introduction
The Structure of Histories
The Internal History of a Square
Color Graphs and Processes
Processes as Cyclic Groups
The Group and the Program
The Internal History of a Side
The Two-Level History of a Square
The Trace Structure of Regular Polygons
The External History of a Square
Continuous Generators
Mapping the Group and the Color Graph
Reference Frames
Full Nesting
Nested Control and Memory
Nesting as Transfer
Theory of Grouping
Grouping: Evaluation Theory
Why the Ordering Stretches.Shears.Rotations
The Interaction Principles
Preliminary Corroboration
The Backwards and Forwards Interaction Principles
Defining the Cartesian Reference Frame
The External History of the Cartesian Reference Frame
The Internal History of the Cartesian Reference Frame
The Psychological Nature of Cartesian Reference Frames
Imposing a Cartesian Frame
A Solution to the Square-Diamond Problem
Alternative Subhistories Conforming to the Subhistory Principle
The Solution to the Orientation-and-Form Problem
The Cartesian Frame Bundle
Motion Perception
Induced Motion
Successive Embeddings of Induced Motion
Johansson (1950) Motion
Generalized Cylinders
A Full Process Structure
The Cylinder Scenario
The Boundary-Pushing Scenario
The Classical Local Symmetry Analyses
Blum's SAT
Brady's SLS
What is the Real Difference Between the SAT and SLS?
The Structure of Local Symmetry Analyses
Symmetry Analysis for Boundary-Pushing
The Inference of Indentation
The Inference of Squashing
The Inference of Internal Resistance
PISA as Boundary-Pushing
Functional Appropriateness of Symmetry Analyses
Physical Appropriateness of the Two Scenarios
Summary
Linguistics
Introduction
Current Concepts of Constituent Structure
Replacing Current Constituency Rules
Reviewing Further Concepts
Transformations Are Based on the Asymmetry and Symmetry Principles
Stratification of Movement
Two Types of Modification Rules
Atemporal or Temporal Interpretations of Generativity
Functionalist Considerations
The Coding of Topic
Topic and Transformations
Functional Stratification of Transformations
Differences Between Topic-Comment Structure and Chomskian Constituency Structure
Comment Structure and Syntactic Structure
Fitting Accumulation Rules Together with Movement Rules
Language as Memory
Language as Causal History
Summary
Art
Introduction
Art-Works
Using the Extrema-Based Rules
Picasso's Woman Ironing
The Main Curvature Extrema
Meaning is History
Extraction of Further History from Picasso's Woman Ironing
The Bending Process in Woman Ironing
Picasso's Demoiselles d'Avignon
The Structure of Demoiselles d'Avignon
The Meaning of Demoiselles d'Avignon
Picasso's Still Life on a Pedestal Table
Raphael's Alba Madonna
Histories from the Straight Line
The Structure of the Alba Madonna
The Second and Third Art-Work Principles
The Preference for Stimulus Complexity
Complexity Level Hypothesis, Part 1: Optimal Complexity
Complexity Level Hypothesis, Part 2: Insufficient Complexity
Complexity Level Hypothesis, Part 2: Excessive Complexity
The Fundamental Aesthetic Principle
Aesthetics and Cognition
Summary
Political Prisoners
Introduction
Death
Politics and Death
Prisoners of an Emptied Present
Refugees
Political Prisoners
Slaves
Subjugators
Technology and History
The Symmetrizing Effects of Technology
The Symmetrizing Economy
The Expansion of the Symmetrizing Economy
The Homeless
The Glorification of the Standardized Individual
The History Ethic
The Purpose of this Book
Where is History?
Notes
References
Index

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