Speaking From Intention to Articulation

ISBN-10: 0262620898
ISBN-13: 9780262620895
Edition: 1993
List price: $53.00
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Description: In Speaking, Willem "Pim" Levelt, Director of the Max-Planck-Institut fr Psycholinguistik, accomplishes the formidable task of covering the entire process of speech production, from constraints on conversational appropriateness to articulation and  More...

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Book details

List price: $53.00
Copyright year: 1993
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 8/26/1993
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 584
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.210
Language: English

In Speaking, Willem "Pim" Levelt, Director of the Max-Planck-Institut fr Psycholinguistik, accomplishes the formidable task of covering the entire process of speech production, from constraints on conversational appropriateness to articulation and self-monitoring of speech. Speaking is unique in its balanced coverage of all major aspects of the production of speech, in the completeness of its treatment of the entire speech process, and in its strategy of exemplifying rather than formalizing theoretical issues.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Author's Notes
The Speaker as Information Processor
A Case Study
A Blueprint for the Speaker
Conceptualizing
Formulating: Grammatical and Phonological Encoding
Articulating
Self-Monitoring
Processing Components as Relatively Autonomous Specialists
Executive Control and Automaticity
Units of Processing and Incremental Production
Units of Processing
Incremental Production
Summary
The Speaker as Interlocutor
Interaction
Cooperation
Turn Taking, Engagement, and Disengagement
Saying and Conveying
Deixis
Types of Deixis
Place Deixis
Time Deixis
Intention
Speech Acts
Speech-Act Type and Sentential Form
Politeness and Indirect Speech Acts
Summary
The Structure of Messages
Modes of Knowledge Representation and Preverbal Messages
Semantic Entities and Relations
Semantic Representations
Kinds of Messages
Function/Argument Structures
Head/Modifier Structures
Types and Tokens
Semantic Types
What Are Possible Messages? The Problem of Ellipsis
The Thematic Structure of Messages
Thematic Roles
Semiotic Extension of Thematic Roles
Some Concluding Remarks
Perspective and Information Structure
Nuclear Thematic Structure
The Topic
Givenness and Inferability
Focus
Mood, Aspect, and Deixis
Mood and Modality
Aspect
Deixis
Language-Specific Requirements
Summary
The Generation of Messages
From Intention to Message
Bookkeeping and Some of Its Consequences for Message Construction
The Type of Discourse
The Topic of Discourse
The Content of Discourse: Discourse Models and Presuppositions
The Focus
What Was Literally Said
Macroplanning 1: Deciding on Information to Be Expressed
The Format of Macroprocedural Knowledge
Macroplanning and Attentional Resources
Selecting Information for Making Reference to Objects
Selecting Information for Construction of Requests
Selecting Main-Structure and Side-Structure Information
Macroplanning 2: Ordering Information for Expression
Content-Related Determinants
Process-Related Determinants
Microplanning
Assigning Accessibility Status to Referents
Conceptual Prominence
Topicalizing
Assigning Propositional Format and Perspective
Acknowledging Language-Specific Requirements
Summary
Surface Structure
Syntactic Aspects
Surface Structures as Expressions of Grammatical Functions
Surface Structures as Input to Phonological Encoding
Some Properties of Surface Phrase Structure
Prosodic Aspects
Mood and Modality
Prosodic Focus
Summary
Lexical Entries and Accessing Lemmas
The Structure and Organization of Entries in the Mental Lexicon
The Internal Structure of a Lexical Entry
Relations between Items in the Mental Lexicon
Retrieving versus Constructing Words
Phrases and Idioms
Lexical Entries, Lemmas, and Morpho-Phonological Forms
The Structure of Lemmas
Semantic and Syntactic Properties
Grammatical Functions and Conceptual Arguments
Prepositions, Adjectives, and Nouns
Auxiliaries and Minor Categories
Theories of Lemma Access
Parallel Processing And Convergence Parallel Processing
Logogen Theory
Discrimination Nets
Decision Tables
Activation Spreading
Toward a Solution of the Hypernym Problem
Failures of Lemma Access
A Taxonomy of Causes
Blends
Substitutions
Exchanges of Words
The Time Course of Lexical Access
Stages of Access
Visual Processing and Categorization
Lexical Access
Accessing Lemmas and Word Forms: Two Stages?
Are Categorization and Lexical Access Nonoverlapping Stages?
Summary
The Generation of Surface Structure
The Architecture of Grammatical Encoding
Some Basic Kinds of Operation
Speech Errors: Exchanges of Same-Category Phrases and Words
Some More Complex Cases
Ellipsis
Ordering Errors
Units of Grammatical Encoding
The Encoding of Topic and Other Nuclear Entities
Accessibility and The Encoding of Topic
Encoding Nuclear and Non-Nuclear Entities: Saliency and Competition
Cohesive Encoding
Cohesive Reference
Cohesive Syntax
Feedback in Grammatical Encoding
Summary
Phonetic Plans for Words and Connected Speech
Plans for Words
Morphology
Tier-Representation in Word Phonology
The Skeletal Tier
The Syllable Tier
The Segment Tier
The Metrical Tier
The Intonation Tier
Morphophonemic Relations
Plans for Connected Speech
Segments and Syllables
Metrical Structure
Intonation
Summary
Generating Phonetic Plans for Words
The Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
Frames, Slots, Fillers, and Levels of Processing
Morphological/Metrical Spellout
Segmental Spellout
Phonetic Spellout
The Unit-Similarity Constraint
Substitutable Sublexical Units
Morphemes
Syllables
Syllable Constituents
Segments
Distinctive Features
Word Onsets and Word Ends
The Slots-and-Fillers Theory and the Causation of Errors
Processing Levels
The Causation of Errors
Activation-Spreading Theory
The Stratified Structure of the Word-Form Lexicon
Activation-Spreading and Speech Errors
Serial Order in Phonological Encoding
Summary
Generating Phonetic Plans for Connected Speech
A Sketch of the Planning Architecture
Processing Components
Casual Speech
Fast Speech
Shifts
The Generation of Rhythm
Phonological Words
Phonological Phrases, the Grid, and Incremental Production
Intonational Phrases
Metrical Structure and Phonic Durations
Isochrony
The Generation of Intonation
Declination
Setting Key and Register
Planning the Nuclear Tone
Planning the Prenuclear Tune
The Generation of Word Forms in Connected Speech
Segmental Spellout in Context
Phonetic Spellout in Context
Summary
Articulating
Managing the Articulatory Buffer
The Vocal Organs and the Origins of Speech Sounds
The Respiratory System
The Laryngeal System
The Vocal Tract
Motor Control of Speech
Location Programming
Mass-Spring Theory
Auditory Distinctive-Feature Targets
Orosensory Goals, Distinctive Features, and Intrinsic Timing
Auditory Targets with Model-Referenced Control
Coordinative Structures
The Articulation of Syllables
Summary
Self-Monitoring and Self-Repair
Self-Monitoring
What Do Speakers Monitor for?
Selective Attention in Self-Monitoring
Editor Theories of Monitoring
Connectionist Theories of Monitoring
Interrupting and the Use of Editing Expressions
Interrupting the Utterance
The Use of Editing Expressions
Making the Repair
The Syntactic Structure of Repairs
Ways of Restarting
Restarting and the Listener's Continuation Problem
Prosodic Marking in Self-Repair
Repairing on the Fly
Summary
Appendix Symbols From the International Phonetic Alphabet, With Examples
Bibliography
Author Index
Subject Index

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