Evolution and Human Behavior

ISBN-10: 0262531704

ISBN-13: 9780262531702

Edition: 2000

Authors: John Cartwright

List price: $40.00
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Description:

The past decade has seen an upsurge of interest in the application of evolutionary thinking to the study of human behavior. This introductory book provides an overview of the key theoretical principles of human sociobiology and evolutionary psychology and shows how they illuminate the ways humans think and behave. The book takes as one of its main premises the idea that we think, feel, and act in ways that once enhanced the reproductive success of our ancestors. The book covers fundamental issues such as the origins and function of sexual reproduction, mating behavior, human mate choice, patterns of violence in families, altruistic behavior, the evolution of brain size and the origins of language, the modular mind, and the relationship between genes and culture. It also examines the larger implications of Darwinism for how we view ourselves as a species and our sense of ourselves as a moral animal. The book includes a valuable historical introduction to evolutionary theories of behavior and concludes with an examination of the social and political ramifications of evolutionary thought. It contains numerous diagrams and illustrations, comprehensive references, summaries, and suggestions for further reading.
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Book details

List price: $40.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 7/24/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

List of Figures
List of Tables
Preface
Acknowledgments
Historical Introduction: Evolution and Theories of Mind and Behaviour, Darwin and After
The origin of species
New foundations
The study of animal behaviour
Comparative psychology and ethology: the 19th-century origins
Ethology and comparative psychology in the 20th century
Interactions between comparative psychology and ethology
Evolution and theories of human behaviour: Darwin and after
Man the moral animal
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Evolution in America: Morgan, Baldwin and James
Galton and the rise of the eugenics movement
The triumph of culture
Franz Boas
The Revolt against eugenics
Behaviourism as an alternative resting place
The rise of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology
Summary
Further reading
Darwin's Legacy
The mechanism of Darwinian evolution
The ghosts of Lamarckism
The central dogma in a modern form
Darwin's difficulties
The problem of altruism
Natural selection or sexual selection?: dilemmas over sex
Testing for adaptive significance
Pitfalls of the adaptationist paradigm: 'Just so stories' and Panglossianism
The testing of hypotheses
Adaptions and fitness: then and now
Evolutionary psychology or Darwinian anthropology?
Orders of explanation in evolutionary thinking
Summary
Further reading
The Selfish Gene
Some basic principles of genetics
The genetic code
From genes to behaviour: some warnings
The unit of natural selection
The lure and failure of group selection
The unit of selection: replicators and vehicles
Kin selection and altruism
Hamilton's rule
Coefficient of relatedness
Application of Hamilton's rule and kin selection
Kin recognition
Kin recognition and discrimination
Outbreeding: incest taboos and the Westermarck effect
Reciprocal altruism
Altruism and selfishness
Reciprocal altruism, or time-delayed discrete mutualism
Conditions for the existence of reciprocal altruism
True altruism and pseudo-altruism: genes and vehicles revisited
Summary
Further reading
Mating Behaviour: From Systems to Strategies
Why sex?
The costs of sex
The lottery principle
The tangled bank hypothesis, or spatial heterogeneity
The Red Queen hypothesis
The DNA repair hypothesis
Sex and anisogamy
Describing mating behaviour: systems and strategies
Factors affecting expressed mating strategies
A generalised model of mating strategies
Phylogeny
Ecological conditions
Game theory: conflicts between rival strategies
The sex ratio: Fisher and after
Why so many males?
Fisher's argument
Testing and extending Fisher's argument
Empirical tests of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis
Summary
Further reading
Sexual Selection
Finding a mate
Natural and sexual selection
Inter- and intrasexual selection
Consequences of intrasexual selection
Sexual dimorphism: size and weaponry
Variance in reproductive success -- Bateman's principle
Parental investment, reproductive rates and operational sex ratios
Problems with the concept of parental investment
Potential reproductive rates: humans and other animals
The operational sex ratio
The operational sex ratio and humans
Post-copulatory intrasexual competition
Sperm competition
Anisogamy and sperm warfare
Intersexual selection
Mechanisms of intersexual selection
Good taste: Fisher and runaway sexual selection
Good genes and indicator mechanisms
Good resources and good behaviour
Case studies: the peacock and the widow-bird
Sexual selection in humans: some questions
Summary
Further reading
The Evolution of Brain Size
Humans and the great apes
A note on cladistic taxonomy
The human-primate gap: the 1.6 per cent advantage
Phylogeny of the Hominoidea
Intelligence in humans and other primates
The importance of being large
Brain size in humans and other mammals
Origins of primate intelligence
Food or sociality: testing the theories
Summary
Further reading
Language and the Modular Mind
The modular mind
The issue of modularity
The modular mind in action: cognitive adaptations for social exchange
Language
Natural selection and the evolution of language
Dating the origin of human language: culture, anatomy and grooming
Summary
Further reading
Understanding Human Sexual Behaviour: Anthropological Approaches
Contemporary traditional or preindustrial societies
Cultural distribution of mating systems
Hunter-gatherer societies
Sex and history
Power, wealth and sex in early civilisation
Physical comparisons between humans and other primates
Body size and canine size dimorphism
Testis size
Testis size and bodily dimorphism applied to humans
Concealed ovulation
Terminology
Conspicuous and concealed ovulation -- some hypotheses
Testing rival hypotheses of concealed ovulation
Menstruation
Summary
Further readings
Human Mate Choice: The Evolutionary Logic of Sexual Desire
Evolution and sexual desire: some expectations and approaches
Questionnaire approaches
Cross-cultural comparisons
Urgency in copulation
A qualified parental investment model: the effect of levels of involvement
The use of published advertisements
Origin of mate choice preferences: evolutionary psychology or structural powerlessness
The use of stimulus pictures
Male assessment of females
Female assessment of men
Fluctuating asymmetry
Male preference for youth, the female menopause and longevity
Facial attractiveness: averageness, symmetry and honest signals
Honest signals of genetic worth
Faces as purveyors of information
Summary
Further reading
Conflict within Families and Other Groups
Parent-offspring interactions: some basic theory
Parental altruism
Parent-offspring conflict
Maternal-fetal conflict
Conflicts over glucose supplied to the fetus
Conflicts over decision to miscarry
Conflicts over blood supply
Conflict after parturition
Human violence and homicide
Kinship and violence: a paradox?
Infanticide
Human sexual conflicts
Marriage as a reproductive contract: control of female sexuality
Jealousy and violence
Divorce and remarriage
Summary
Further reading
Altruism, Co-operation and the Foundations of Culture
Game theory and the origins of human altruism
The prisoners' dilemma
Applications of game theory
Altruism: emotion and morality
The emotional life of an altruist
Biological morality and induced altruism
The distribution of wealth: inheritance and kin investment in human culture
Inheritance rules and marriage systems
Inheritance of wealth: practice in a contemporary Western culture
The evolution of culture: genes and memes
Culture as autonomous
Culture as a consequence of genotype: culture is a programme for fitness maximisation
Gene-culture co-evolution
Cultural evolution as the natural selection of memes or part of gene-meme co-evolution
Summary
Further reading
Epilogue: The Use and Abuse of Evolutionary Theory
Evolution and politics: a chequered history
Race, IQ and intelligence
A poisoned chalice
Social Darwinisn and eugenics
Social Darwinism
Eugenics
Evolutionary biology and sexism
Evolutionary biology and racism
The limits of nature
Reductionism and determinism
The perfectibility of man
So human an animal
Fine intentions
Retrieving our humanity
Summary
Further reading
Glossary
References
Index
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