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Auditory Scene Analysis The Perceptual Organization of Sound

ISBN-10: 0262521954
ISBN-13: 9780262521956
Edition: 1994
List price: $70.00 Buy it from $20.51
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Description: Auditory Scene Analysis addresses the problem of hearing complex auditory environments, using a series of creative analogies to describe the process required of the human auditory system as it analyzes mixtures of sounds to recover descriptions of  More...

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Book details

List price: $70.00
Copyright year: 1994
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 9/29/1994
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 792
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 2.00" tall
Weight: 2.750
Language: English

Auditory Scene Analysis addresses the problem of hearing complex auditory environments, using a series of creative analogies to describe the process required of the human auditory system as it analyzes mixtures of sounds to recover descriptions of individual sounds. In a unified and comprehensive way, Bregman establishes a theoretical framework that integrates his findings with an unusually wide range of previous research in psychoacoustics, speech perception, music theory and composition, and computer modeling.

Preface
The Auditory Scene
Historical Difference between Auditory and Visual Perception
The Problem of Scene Analysis
Objects Compared to Streams
The Principle of Exclusive Allocation
Two Comparisons of Scene Analysis in Vision and Audition
Auditory Streaming and Apparent Motion
Gestalt Grouping Explanation
Auditory Streaming versus Apparent Motion
Scene-Analysis Explanation
Closure and Belongingness
Sequential versus Spectral Organization
Perceptual Decomposition of Complex Sounds
Horizontal and Vertical Processes of Organization
Types of Explanation of These Phenomena
Scene-Analysis View Prevents Missing of Vision-Audition Differences
Differences in the Ecology of Vision and Audition
Primitive versus Schema-Based Stream Segregation
Verification Of The Theory
Summary
Sequential Integration
Auditory Stream Segregation
An Experiment with Artificial Words
Previous Knowledge of the Streaming Phenomenon
Early Scientific Observation
Methodology for the Study of Stream Segregation
Rationale for Recycled Sequences
How to Measure Streaming
List of Measures That Have Been Used
Method of Adjustment.
Method of Limits.
Proportion of Time Integrated and Segregated.
Rating Scale for Fixed Presentations.
Pattern Recognition.
Rhythm Changes.
Drawing or Writing Down What You Hear.
Judgment of the Order of Elements in a Repeating Sequence.
Counting Tones.
Factors Influencing Stream Segregation
Frequency Separation and Rate
What Property of Time Intervals Influences Streaming?
What Are The Elements?
How to Define Onsets
Hierarchy of Time Scales with Properties Computed at Each
Spatial Location
Stream Segregation Based on Spatial Location
Switching Signals between the Ears
Spectral Frequency and Fundamental Frequency
Timbre
The Problem of the Definition of Timbre
Nonanalytical Studies of Grouping by Timbre
Brightness and Timbre
Two Kinds of Spectral Constancy
Beyond the Study of Steady-State Tones
What Remains to Be Studied
Timbre Space or Single Properties? Metameric Timbre
Multidimensional Timbre Space
Amplitude Differences
Cumulative Effects Of Repetitions
Explanations of the Cumulation Effect
Continuity
Trajectory-Based Integration
Effects Of Streaming
Focusing on the Stream as a Unit
Computation of Within-Stream Emergent Properties
Temporal Relations
Recognition of Order
Why Effects of Streaming on Order Perception Are Not Always Clear
Other Measures of Temporal Relations
Generation of Within-Stream Rhythms
Perception of Overlap
Effects on Gap Discrimination
Effects on Apparent Rate
Conclusions about the Effects on Temporal Relations
Complete Loss of Across-Stream Information?
Competition among Alternative Organizations
Belongingness
Experimental Data on Competition
Validity of Competition
Limitation of the Principle of Exclusive Allocation
Summary of Effects of Streaming
Stream Segregation and Vision
Similarities with Vision
Interactions with Vision
Theoretical Explanations of Stream Segregation
Scene Analysis and Other Forms of Explanation
Physiological Hypotheses
Functional Explanation
Mechanistic Forms of Explanation
Local Rules
Global Rules
Proximity.
Similarity.
Good Continuation and Completion.
Organization.
Context.
Belongingness.
The Perceptual Field.
Innateness and Automaticity.
Hierarchies in Auditory Organization
Relation to Other Psychological Mechanisms: Attention
Teleological Approach
Formal versus Informal Theorizing
Integration of Simultaneous Auditory Components
A Miniature Scene-Analysis Problem
Factors Influencing Integration of Simultaneous Components
The "Old-Plus-New" Heuristic
Spectral Relations
Properties of the Harmonics
Harmonic Relations (Harmonicity) in Complex Tones
Models of the Pitch-Analysis Process
Theories of Pitch Analysis
Listening to Inharmonic Partials
Fusion and Segregation of Simultaneous Complexes
Common Fate (AM and FM)
FM: Parallel Changes in the Frequency of Partials
Micromodulation
Glides
AM: Common Amplitude Change at Different Spectral Locations
Onset-Offset Asynchrony
Common Periodicity (AM) at Different Spectral Locations
Amplitude Modulation of Subsets of Partials
Comparison of AM and FM Effects
Correlation of Auditory with Visual Changes
Summary of Effects of Common Fate
Spatial Correspondence
Evidence That Ear Comparisons Must Be Frequency Specific
Computer Programs That Use Spatial Correspondence
Interaction with Other Cues in Determining Grouping
Contribution of Perceptual Grouping to Perceived Location
Interaction with Sequential Integration
Interaction with Cues for Spectral Fusion
Conclusion: Classical versus Organizational Cues
Other Factors Affecting Fusion of Simultaneous Components
Comparison between Fusion and Masking
Comodulation Release from Masking
Meaning of These Findings for Biology
Perceptual Results of Simultaneous Integration and Segregation
Examples of Within-Stream Computation of Properties
Within-Stream Temporal Properties
Streaming Rules
Pitch
Timbre
Vowels
Consonance and Dissonance
What Is the Default Condition: Fusion or Decomposition?
Reallocation of Intensity and Timbre Information
The Consequences of Simultaneous/Sequential Competition
Apparent Continuity and Contralateral Induction
The Continuity Illusion
Rules Governing the Generative Process
The "No Discontinuity in A" Rule
The "Sufficiency of Evidence" Rule
The "A1-A2 Grouping" Rule
The "A Is Not B" Rule
The "Old-Plus-New" Heuristic
Examples Examined in the Light of Theory
Continuity of Words and Musical Scales
Integration as the Default Condition in the Auditory System
Duration of the Softer Tone
The "Roll" Effect
Comparison with Vision
Contralateral Induction
Summary
Schema-Based Segregation and Integration
Nature of Primitive and Schema-Based Organization
Properties That May Distinguish the Two Systems
How Do We Know They Should Be Distinguished?
Does Learning Affect Streaming?
Do Regular Patterns Form More Coherent Streams?
Jones' Rhythmic Theory of Attention
Does the Auditory System Track and Project Trajectories?
Evidence That the System Does Not Project Trajectories
Evidence That the System Projects Trajectories
Trajectory-Based Integration of Streams
Order of Unidirectional Sequences Is Easier to Report
Results Explainable by Other Factors
Comparison with Vision
"Is Auditory Attention Inherently Rhythmical?"
Regularity of Rhythm: Does It Promote Segregation?
Evidence That Rhythm Favors Segregation
Segregation Occurs with Temporally Irregular Sequences
"Are Streams Created by Attention?"
Auditory Organization in Music
Musical Scene Analysis
Melody
Coherence of Melodies
Phenomenal Dependency Based on Timing
Effects of Melodic Absorption on Perceived Pitch
Timbre (Cause and Effect)
Timbre as Cause of Segregation
The Description of Timbre
Dimensional Approach to Timbre
Timbre as the Result of Fusion
Vertical Coherence and Counterpoint
Segregation and Masking in Musical Ensembles
Counterpoint
Distinctness of Voices
Spatial Separation
Counterpoint and Dissonance
Physical Causes of Dissonance
How the Control of Roughness Can Be Accomplished
Polyrhythm
Polytonality
Potential Offered by Synthesis Techniques
Automatic Recognition
Summary
Auditory Organization in Speech Perception
Sequential Organization of Speech Sounds
Continuity of the Fundamental
Spectral Continuity
Spatial Continuity
Are These Acoustic Continuities Enough?
Simultaneous Organization
Role of Harmonic Relations and F0
Two- Voice Research
Split-Formant Research
Harmonics in Nonoverlapping Frequency Ranges
Scene Analysis in the Defining of Formants
Computer Models for Segregation of Two Voices
Common-Fate Cues
Summary of Findings with Nonspeech Sounds
Correlated Frequency Changes
Frequency Modulation of Harmonics
Segregation by Independent Movement of Formant Center Frequency?
Correlated Amplitude Changes
Sequential Capturing (Onset and Offset Asynchrony)
Asynchronous Onsets Can Be Integrated
Spatial Location Cues
Segregation of Formants
The Principle of Exclusive Allocation in Scene Analysis
Claims and Facts about Duplex Perception of Speech
Problems with the Claim that Speech Is Exempt from Scene Analysis
When Is Exclusive Allocation Violated?
Examples Involving Speech
Multiple Allocation of Evidence with Nonspeech Sounds
Music
Violations That Do Not Involve Competition among Major Subsystems
Violations with Pure-Tone Stimuli
DPS Is Not Immune from Low-Level Organizational Factors
Explanations of Violations of Exclusive Allocation
How Unusual Is the Sharing of Evidence?
Role of Schemas
Two-Component Theory: Links and Schemas
Piecewise Verification of the Theory
Summary and Conclusions: What We Do and Do Not Know about Auditory Scene Analysis
Summary of Previous Chapters
Primitive Auditory Scene Analysis
Sequential Integration: Auditory Stream Segregation
Factors Influencing Stream Segregation
Timbre
Summary of Factors Promoting Sequential Grouping
Effects of Stream Segregation
Spectral Integration
Factors Influencing Spectral Integration
The Continuity Illusion and Contralateral Induction
The "no discontinuity in A" rule.
The "sufficiency of evidence" rule.
The "A1-A2 grouping" rule.
The "A is not B" rule.
Schema-Based Stream Segregation
Nature of Primitive and Schema-Based Organization
Tests of the Existence of a Primitive Process
Does Sequential Grouping Take Advantage of Trajectories?
Primitive Auditory Organization in Music
Role of Primitive Organization in Music
Melody
Timbre
Auditory Organization in Speech
Sequential Organization of Speech Sounds
Simultaneous Organization of Speech Sounds
Duplex Perception and the Problem of Exclusive Allocation
Directions for the Future
Practical Applications
Notes
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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