World Turned Upside Down Medieval Japanese Society

ISBN-10: 0231118430
ISBN-13: 9780231118439
Edition: N/A
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Description: In the late twelfth century, Japanese people called the transitional period in which they were living the "age of warriors." Feudal clans fought civil wars, and warriors from the Kanto Plain rose up to restore the military regime of their shogun,  More...

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Book details

List price: $32.00
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Publication date: 9/3/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 336
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.836
Language: English

In the late twelfth century, Japanese people called the transitional period in which they were living the "age of warriors." Feudal clans fought civil wars, and warriors from the Kanto Plain rose up to restore the military regime of their shogun, Yoritomo. The whole of this intermediary period came to represent a gap between two stable societies: the ancient period, dominated by the imperial court in Heian (today's Kyoto), and the modern period, dominated by the Tokugawa bakufu based in Edo (today's Tokyo). In this remarkable portrait of a complex period in the evolution of Japan, Pierre F. Souyri uses a wide variety of sources -- ranging from legal and historical texts to artistic and literary examples -- to form a magisterial overview of medieval Japanese society. As much at home discussing the implications of the morality and mentality of The Tale of the Heike as he is describing local disputes among minor vassals or the economic implications of the pirate trade, Souyri brilliantly illustrates the interconnected nature of medieval Japanese culture. The Middle Ages was a decisive time in Japan's history because it confirmed the country's national identity. New forms of cultural expression, such as poetry, theater, garden design, the tea ceremony, flower arranging, and illustrated scrolls, conveyed a unique sensibility -- sometimes in opposition to the earlier Chinese models followed by the old nobility. The World Turned Upside Down provides an animated account of the religious, intellectual, and literary practices of medieval Japan in order to reveal the era's own notable cultural creativity and enormous economic potential.

Pierre F. Souyri is Directeur des �tudes at the �cole Fran�ais d'Extr�me-Orient.K�the Roth is coeditor of Judaism: Myth, Legend, History, and Custom, from the Religious to the Secular.

List of Maps
Author's Note
A Chronology of Japanese History, with an Emphasis on the Middle Ages
The Curtain Rises
Japanese Medieval Society
The Age of the Warriors
Social Mobility, Revolts, and Growth
The Sources
Written Sources
Other Types of Historical Materials
The People of Japan
Social Dynamics in the Late Heian Period
The Court's Domination of the Provinces
The Birth of the Warrior Class
The Regime of the Retired Emperors
The Rise of the Taira
The Crisis in the Late Twelfth Century
War
Favorable Conditions in the Eastern Provinces
To the Death for the Estate!
Establishment of the Bakufu
Kamakura: The Warrior Regime
The Rise of the Hojo Family
The Bakufu and the Vassals
Governors and Stewards
The Law and Justice
The Mongol Invasions and the Culmination of the Kamakura Regime
Kamakura: A Society of Questions
The Nobility in Turmoil
Chomei
Jien
The New Buddhists
Practice or Faith?
Honen
Shinran
The Reaction of Orthodox Buddhism
Nichiren
Ippen
Zen
The Five Mountains
The Heike: Evoking the Departed
Kamakura: A Society in Transformation
Those Who Lived Off the Land ...
The Rural Economy
The Village
The Rise of Agricultural Production
Trade in the Countryside
Emancipation of the Serfs
... And Those Who Did Not Live Off the Land
The "People of the Sea"
Artisans
Dancers and Courtesans
The Pariahs
Kamakura and Kyoto
The Second Middle Ages: The Turning Point of the Fourteenth Century
The Rise of Violence and Tensions in the Regime
A "Virtuous Government"
Bandits and People with Strange Customs
The Evil Parties
Stone Throwing
Basara
War Again: The Fall of the Hojo Regime
The Kenmu Restoration
Civil War
Warriors, Pirates, Peasants, and Priests
New Governors and Landowner Leagues
War in the Provinces and the Emergence of Governors
Landowner Leagues
The Growth of International Piracy
The Rise of the Peasantry
The So
The Estates in Revolt: Shoke no ikki
Thoughts and Attitudes: From Theorists to Organizers
History As Seen by Kitabatake Chikafusa
Return to Conservatism in the New Buddhism
Zen of the Five Mountains
The Splendor and Misery of the Muromachi Century: The Culmination of the Ashikaga and the Development of Trade
The Political Cadres: Stability and Then Failure in the Ashikaga Shogunal Regime
Growth in International Trade
Okinawa: "A Bridge Between Countries"
Domestic Trade in the Archipelago: Guilds and Moneylenders
Kinai at the Heart of a Prosperous Economy
Lake Biwa and Omi Province
From Kyoto to Hyogo
The Splendor and Misery of the Muromachi Century: New Uprisings, New Culture
The Do-ikki: Cultivator Disputes
The Terrible Onin War (1467-77)
New Forms of Sociability and Art
Conditions for Art Production: Sponsorship and Discrimination
"Companions" and Ji Monks
Kawara Society
A New Art of Living: The Chinese Style and the Creation of a "Japanese" Style
The Sengoku Period: Communes, Religious Leagues, and Neighborhood Associations
Overview of the Years 1480-1570
The Quest for Autonomy: Village "Communes"
Sokoku: Regional Communes
The Yamashiro Uprising
The Iga Commune
"We Who Have Faith": The Ikko Leagues
Urban Autonomy and Self-Defense
The Machishu
The Lotus Leagues
Sakai
The Sengoku Period: Warlords Seeking Power
The Collapse of the Shogunal Regime
Warlords: Two Examples
The Hojo Lords
The Imagawa Lords
What Is a Warlord?
The New Vassalage: "A Strong Army"
The New Organization: "A Rich Country"
Reflections on Japanese Feudalism
Creating a New Order
Notes
Glossary of Japanese Words and Names
Bibliography
Index

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