Learning and Behavior

ISBN-10: 0205864813

ISBN-13: 9780205864812

Edition: 7th 2013

Authors: James E. Mazur
List price: $200.67
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Description: A thorough survey of the field of learning. Learning & Behaviorcovers topics such as classical and operant conditioning, reinforcement schedules, avoidance and punishment, stimulus control, comparative cognition, observational learning, motor skill learning, and choice. The book includes thorough coverage of classic studies and the most recent developments and trends, while providing examples of real-world applications of the principles discovered in laboratory research. It also emphasizes the behavioral approach but not exclusively so; many cognitive theories are covered as well, and there is a chapter on comparative cognition.  Learning GoalsUpon completing this book readers will be able to:Understand the field of learningDiscuss real-world applications of learning principlesNote:MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit:www.mysearchlab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205864813 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205864812.

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Book details

List price: $200.67
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/15/2012
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 448
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Preface
History, Background, and Basic Concepts
Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation
Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning
Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications
Avoidance and Punishment
Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning
Stimulus Control and Concept Learning
Comparative Cognition
Learning by Observation
Learning Motor Skills
Choice
Glossary
References
Acknowledgments
Author Index
Subject Index
Preface
History, Background, and Basic Concepts
The Search for General Principles of Learning
The Associationists
Aristotle
The British Associationists: Simple and Complex Ideas
Ebbinghaus's Experiments on Memory
The Effects of Repetition
The Effects of Time
The Role of Contiguity
The Influence of the Associationists and Ebbinghaus
Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning
The Use of Animal Subjects
The Emphasis on External Events
The Physiological Approach: Brain and Behavior
The Basic Characteristics of Neurons
Physiological Research on Simple Sensations
Physiological Research on Feature Detectors
Physiological Research on Learning
Summary
Review Questions
Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation
Characteristics of Goal-Directed Systems
Reflexes
Tropisms and Orientation
Kineses
Taxes
Sequences of Behavior
Fixed Action Patterns
Reaction Chains
Innate Human Abilities and Predispositions
Habituation
General Principles of Habituation
Physiological Mechanisms of Habituation
Habituation in Emotional Responses: the Opponent-Process Theory
Summary
Review Questions
Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Discovery and Its Impact
The Standard Paradigm of Classical Conditioning
The Variety of Conditioned Responses
Pavlov's Stimulus Substitution Theory
S-S or S-R Connections?
Basic Conditioning Phenomena
Acquisition
Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery, Disinhibition, and Rapid Reacquisition
Conditioned Inhibition
Generalization and Discrimination
The Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning
CS-US Correlations
Higher Order Conditioning
Classical Conditioning Outside the Laboratory
Classical Conditioning and Emotional Responses
Classical Conditioning and the Immune System
Applications in Behavior Therapy
Summary
Review Questions
Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning
Theories of Associative Learning
The Blocking Effect
The Rescorla-Wagner Model
Other Theories
Summary
Types of Associations
Associations in First-Order Conditioning
Associations in Second-Order Conditioning
Associations with Contextual Stimuli
CS-CS Associations
Occasion Setting
Summary
Biological Constraints on Classical Conditioning
The Contiguity Principle and Taste-Aversion Learning
Biological Preparedness in Taste-Aversion Learning
Biological Preparedness in Human Learning
Biological Constraints and the General-Principle Approach
The Form of the Conditioned Response
Drug Tolerance and Drug Cravings as Conditioned Responses
Conditioned Opponent Theories
Physiological Research on Classical Conditioning
Summary
Review Questions
Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
The Law of Effect
Thorndike's Experiments
Guthrie and Horton: Evidence for a Mechanical Strengthening Process
Superstitious Behaviors
The Procedure of Shaping, or Successive Approximations
Shaping Lever Pressing in a Rat
Shaping Behaviors in the Classroom
Shaping as a Tool in Behavior Modification
Making Shaping More Precise: Percentile Schedules
Versatility of the Shaping Process
The Research of B. F. Skinner
The Free Operant
The Three-Term Contingency
Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
Resurgence
Conditioned Reinforcement
Response Chains
Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning
Instinctive Drift
Autoshaping
Reconciling Reinforcement Theory and Biological Constraints
Summary
Review Questions
Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications
Plotting Moment-to-Moment Behavior: the Cumulative Recorder
The Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules
Fixed Ratio
Variable Ratio
Fixed Interval
Variable Interval
Extinction and the Four Simple Schedules
Other Reinforcement Schedules
Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules
Behavioral Momentum
Contingency-Shaped versus Rule-Governed Behaviors
Reinforcement History
Summary
The Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement Schedules
Cause of the FR Postreinforcement Pause
Comparisons of VR and VI Response Rates
Applications of Operant Conditioning
Teaching Language to Children with Autism
Token Reinforcement
Organizational Behavior Management
Behavior Therapy for Marital Problems
Conclusions
Summary
Review Questions
Avoidance and Punishment
Avoidance
A Representative Experiment
Two-Factor Theory
Evidence Supporting Two-Factor Theory
Problems with Two-Factor Theory
One-Factor Theory
Cognitive Theory
Biological Constraints in Avoidance Learning
Conclusions about the Theories of Avoidance
Flooding as Behavior Therapy
Learned Helplessness
Punishment
Is Punishment the Opposite of Reinforcement?
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
Disadvantages of Using Punishment
Negative Punishment
Behavior Decelerators in Behavior Therapy
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment: Response Cost and Time-Out
Other Techniques for Behavior Deceleration
Summary
Review Questions
Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning
The Role of the Response
The Role of the Reinforcer
Is Reinforcement Necessary for Operant Conditioning?
Expectations about the Reinforcer
Can Reinforcement Control Visceral Responses?
Biofeedback
How Can We Predict What Will Be a Reinforcer?
Need Reduction
Drive Reduction
Trans-situationality
Premack's Principle
Response Deprivation Theory
The Functional Analysis of Behaviors and Reinforcers
Behavioral Economics
Optimization: Theory and Research
Elasticity and Inelasticity of Demand
Behavioral Economics and Drug Abuse
Other Applications
Summary
Review Questions
Stimulus Control and Concept Learning
Generalization Gradients
Measuring Generalization Gradients
What Causes Generalization Gradients?
Is Stimulus Control Absolute or Relational?
Transposition and Peak Shift
Spence's Theory of Excitatory and Inhibitory Gradients
The Intermediate-Size Problem
Other Data, and Some Conclusions
Behavioral Contrast
�Errorless� Discrimination Learning
Transfer of Learning and Learning Sets
Concept Learning
The Structure of Natural Categories
Animal Studies on Natural Concept Learning
Developing Stimulus Equivalence
Stimulus Control in Behavior Modification
Stimulus Equivalence Training
Study Habits and Health Habits
Insomnia
Summary
Review Questions
Comparative Cognition
Memory and Rehearsal
Short-Term Memory, or Working Memory
Rehearsal
Long-Term Memory, Retrieval, and Forgetting
Time, Number, and Serial Patterns
Experiments on an �Internal Clock�
Counting
Serial Pattern Learning
Chunking
Language and Reasoning
Teaching Language to Animals
Reasoning by Animals
Summary
Review Questions
Learning by Observation
Theories of Imitation
Imitation as an Instinct
Imitation as an Operant Response
Imitation as a Generalized Operant Response
Bandura's Theory of Imitation
Which Theory of Imitation Is Best?
Mirror Neurons and Imitation
Interactions Between Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning
Achievement Motivation
Aggression
Effects of the Mass Media
Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior
Video Games and Popular Music
What Can Be Learned Through Observation?
Phobias
Drug Use and Addictions
Cognitive Development
Moral Standards and Behavior
Modeling in Behavior Therapy
Facilitation of Low-Probability Behaviors
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