Psychologist As Detective An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology

ISBN-10: 0205859070
ISBN-13: 9780205859078
Edition: 6th 2013 (Revised)
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Description: Understanding psychological research by finding a problem, discovering the clues, and evaluating the evidence.The Psychologist as Detectives introduces students to the research process. The authors treat psychological research as a detective case in  More...

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Book details

List price: $126.99
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Pearson Education, Limited
Publication date: 10/2/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 456
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

Understanding psychological research by finding a problem, discovering the clues, and evaluating the evidence.The Psychologist as Detectives introduces students to the research process. The authors treat psychological research as a detective case in which a problem is presented, clues are discovered, evidence is evaluated, and a report is prepared for consideration by peers.Learning GoalsUpon completing this book, readers will be able to:Think critically about research and research methodsAnalyze research as a problem solving procedureDevelop research skills by looking at examples of research studiesEvaluate evidence from a research study and prepare a report or summary of the caseNote: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit: www.mysearchlab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205861792/ ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205861798.

Preface
Psychological Research and the Research Methods Course
How Psychologists Acquire Knowledge
The Research Process
Finding a Problem
Reviewing the Literature
Theoretical Considerations
Hypothesis
Research Plan
Conducting the Research Project
Analysis of Research Findings
Decisions in Terms of Past Research and Theory
Preparing the Research Report
Sharing Your Results: Presentation and Publication
Finding a New Problem
Why Is the Research Methods Course Important?
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Developing a Good Research Idea and Conducting an Ethical Project
The Research Idea
Characteristics of Good Research Ideas
Sources of Research Ideas
Developing a Research Question
Surveying the Psychological Literature
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
The Need for Ethical Principles
APA Principles in the Conduct of Research With Humans
Is Deception in Research Necessary?
Informed Consent
Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk
Vulnerable Populations
The Debriefing Session
The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research
The Institutional Review Board
The Experimenter's Responsibility
The Participants' Responsibility
The Researcher's Ethical Obligations Once the Research Is Completed
Plagiarism
Fabrication of Data
Lying With Statistics
Citing Your References Correctly
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Qualitative Research Methods
General Overview
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Data Analysis
Selected Examples of Qualitative Research Methods
Naturalistic Observation
Ethnographic Inquiry
Focus Groups
Interview Studies
Narrative Studies
Case Studies
Artifact Analysis
Historiographies
Symbolic Interaction
Grounded Theory
Participatory Action Research
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Nonexperimental Methods: Descriptive Methods, Correlational Studies, Ex Post Facto Studies, Surveys and Questionnaires, Sampling, and Basic Research Strategies
Descriptive Methods
Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
Naturalistic Observation
Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques
Correlational Studies
The Nature of Correlations
Correlational Research
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Ex Post Facto Studies
Surveys, Questionnaires, Tests, and Inventories
Surveys and Questionnaires
Tests and Inventories
Sampling Considerations and Basic Research Strategies
Sampling
Basic Research Strategies
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Using the Scientific Method in Psychology
Components of the Scientific Method
Objectivity
Confirmation of Findings
Self-Correction
Control
The Psychological Experiment
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Extraneous Variables
Establishing Cause-and-Effect Relations
Formulating the Research Hypothesis
Characteristics of the Research Hypothesis
Types of Statements
Types of Reasoning
Directional Versus Nondirectional Research Hypotheses
An Alternate View of Hypothesis Testing
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Conducting a Good Experiment I: Variables and Control
The Nature of Variables
Operationally Defining Variables
Independent Variables
Types of IVs
Extraneous Variables (Confounders)
Dependent Variables
Selecting the DV
Recording or Measuring the DV
Recording More Than One DV
Characteristics of a Good DV
Nuisance Variables
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Controlling Extraneous Variables
Basic Control Techniques
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Conducting a Good Experiment II: Final Considerations, Unanticipated Influences, and Cross-Cultural Issues
Participants
Types of Participants
Number of Participants
Apparatus
IV Presentation
DV Recording
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
The Experimenter as an Extraneous Variable
Experimenter Characteristics
Experimenter Expectancies
Controlling Experimenter Effects
Participant Perceptions as Extraneous Variables
Demand Characteristics and Good Participants
Response Bias
Controlling Participant Effects
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
The Interface Between Research and Culture
Culture, Knowledge, and Truth
The Effect of Culture on Research
Methodology and Analysis Issues
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Internal and External Validity
Internal Validity: Evaluating Your Experiment From the Inside
Threats to Internal Validity
Protecting Internal Validity
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
External Validity: Generalizing Your Experiment to the Outside
Threats to External Validity (Based on Methods)
Threats to External Validity (Based on Our Participants)
The Devil's Advocate: Is External Validity Always Necessary?
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Using Statistics to Answer Questions
Descriptive Statistics
Scales of Measurement
Measures of Central Tendency
Graphing Your Results
Calculating and Computing Statistics
Measures of Variability
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Correlation
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
Inferential Statistics
What Is Significant?
The t Test
One-Tail Versus Two-Tail Tests of Significance
The Logic of Significance Testing
When Statistics Go Astray: Type I and Type II Errors
Effect Size
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with Two Groups
Experimental Design: The Basic Building Blocks
The Two-Group Design
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Comparing Two-Group Designs
Variations on the Two-Group Design
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Statistical Analysis: What do Your Data Show?
The Relation Between Experimental Design and Statistics
Analyzing Two-Group Designs
Calculating Your Statistics
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
The Continuing Research Problem
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with More Than Two Groups
Experimental Design: Adding to the Basic Building Block
The Multiple-Group Design
Comparing the Multiple-Group and Two-Group Designs
Comparing Multiple-Group Designs
Variations on the Multiple-Group Design
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
Analyzing Multiple-Group Designs
Planning Your Experiment
Rationale of ANOVA
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
The Continuing Research Problem
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables
Experimental Design: Doubling the Basic Building Block
The Factorial Design
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Comparing the Factorial Design to Two-Group and Multiple-Group Designs
Choosing a Factorial Design
Variations on Factorial Designs
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
Naming Factorial Designs
Planning the Statistical Analysis
Rationale of Factorial ANOVA
Understanding Interactions
Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
A Final Note
The Continuing Research Problem
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Alternative Research Designs
Protecting Internal Validity Revisited
Examining Your Experiment From the Inside
Protecting Internal Validity With Research Designs
Conclusion
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Single-Case Experimental Designs
History of Single-Case Experimental Designs
Uses of Single-Case Experimental Designs
General Procedures of Single-Case Experimental Designs
Statistics and Single-Case Experimental Designs
Representative Single-Case Experimental Designs
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Quasi-Experimental Designs
History of Quasi-Experimental Designs
Uses of Quasi-Experimental Designs
Representative Quasi-Experimental Designs
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Writing and Assembling an APA-Format Research Report
What Is APA Format?
Sections of the APA-Format Paper
Title Page
Author Note
Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
Discussion
References
Appendix
Headings
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Writing in APA Style
General Guidelines
Grammatical Guidelines
APA Editorial Style
Preparing Your Manuscript
Student Views of Professional Activities
Review Summary
Check Your Progress
Key Terms
Looking Ahead
Statistical Tables
Selected Statistical Formulae
Factorial Design with Three Independent Variables
Check Your Progress Answers
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index

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