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World Prehistory and Archaeology Pathways Through Time

ISBN-10: 0205786235
ISBN-13: 9780205786237
Edition: 2nd 2011
Authors: Michael Chazan
List price: $140.80 Buy it from $3.50
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Description: World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways throughTime integrates world prehistory with a discussion of archaeological methods and techniques-emphasizing the relevance ofhowwe know what we know about our human prehistory,providing the tools to allow  More...

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Book details

List price: $140.80
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/7/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 2.222
Language: English

World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways throughTime integrates world prehistory with a discussion of archaeological methods and techniques-emphasizing the relevance ofhowwe know what we know about our human prehistory,providing the tools to allow for a lifelong engagement with archaeology and drawing students into the process of archaeological research and discovery. Chazan brings students right up to the cutting edge of archaeological research by presenting the most recent discoveries and theoretical perspectives. Howwe know the past is inseparable fromwhatwe know of the past. This new text allows students to see that archaeology is a dynamic field in which knowledge is continuously refined through scientific inquiry while providing a sense of the relevance of archaeology in the contemporary world. As the cornerstone of this book is to present an integrated picture of prehistory as an active process of discovery, we cannot relegate methodological issues to the opening chapters alone. While the introduction to archaeological method in the first two chapters is necessary, the questions ofhowwe know the past cannot be abandoned at that point. A number of features have been developed to draw together an integrated presentation of prehistory throughout the entire text.

Brief CONTENTS
The Past Is a Foreign Country: Getting From Here To There
Getting Started In Archaeology
Putting the Picture Together
Human Evolution
Early Hominins
From Homo erectus to Neanderthals
The Origin of Modern Humans
The Peopling of Australia and the New World
Perspectives On Agriculture
Towers, Villages, and Longhouses
Mounds and Maize
A Feast of Diversity
The Development of Social Complexity
Complexity Without the State
Cities and Pyramids: Early States of Mesopotamia and Egypt
Enigmas and Diversity: Early States in Europe and Asia
From City to Empire: Social Complexity in Mesoamerica
Bringing the Four Parts Together: States and Empire in the Andes
Epilogue Bringing It Back Home
Appendices
Glossary
ReferenceS
FIGURE AND PHOTO CREDITS
Name Index
Subject Index
FULL CONTENTS
Preface
About the Author
The Past is a Foreign Country: Getting From Here to There
Introduction: Questions of Time and Ethics
Getting Started in Archaeology
Reading the Landscape
Survey Design
Geological Factors
Recovery Methods and GIS
Excavation
Horizontal Excavation
Vertical Excavation
Controlling Horizontal and Vertical Space
Recovery Methods
Recording Methods
Artifacts and Ecofacts
FROM THE FIELD: the Author on His Fieldwork at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa
Biases in Preservation
Quantification and Sampling
Counting Bones
Counting Artifacts
TOOLBOX: Ethnoarchaeology
Creating a Chronology
Comparison
TOOLBOX: Radiocarbon Dating
Conservation and Display
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Community Archaeology
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Putting the Picture Together
Origins of Archaeology
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Thomas Jefferson, the Archaeologist
The Emergence of Archaeology
Organizing Time
The Establishment of Human Antiquity
Imperial Archaeology
Developing Method and Theory
Stratigraphic Method and Culture History
Gordon Childe
Archaeology as Science
Developing Scientific Methods
The New Archaeology
Systems Theory
TOOLBOX: Faunal Analysis and Taphonomy
Alternative Perspectives
Postprocessual Archaeology
Gender and Agency
TOOLBOX: Archaeoacoustics
Evolutionary Archaeology
Archaeology at the Trowel's Edge
FROM THE FIELD: Different Views of a Site, by Peter Robertshaw
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Human Evolution
Introduction: Our Place in Nature
Early Hominins
The Fossil Record
The Early Hominin Radiation
Setting the Scene
The East African Rift Valley
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Fraud���Piltdown and Kama-takamori
Lower Paleolithic
FROM THE FIELD: Following the Footsteps of Our Ancestors, by Andrew Du
TOOLBOX: Stone Tools 69
The Origin of Tool Use
Tool Use by Animals
The Archaeological Evidence
Hunting and Sharing Food
Were They Hunters?
TOOLBOX: Dating Early Hominin Sites
Living Floors and Base Camps
The Use of Fire
The Expansion of the Hominin World
Ubeidiya and Dmanisi
East Asia
Summing Up the Evidence
Summary 83 Key Terms
Review Questions
FROM Homo erectus TO NEANDERTHALS
Defining the Ice Age
Before the Neanderthals
The Initial Occupation of Western Europe
The Acheulian Problem
Beyond Stone Tools
Neanderthals
Neanderthal Genetics
Chronology and Ecology
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Religion and Evolution
Aspects of Neanderthal Culture and Adaptation
Stone Tools
TOOLBOX: Cha ne Opÿratoire and the Levallois Method
Hunting
Site Organization and the Use of Fire
Treatment of the Dead
TOOLBOX: Geoarchaeology and Micromorphology
FROM THE FIELD: A Paleoepiphany, by Lynne A. SchePartz
Artwork
Neanderthal Society
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
The Origin of Modern Humans
What Is a Modern Human?
Early Modern Humans in Africa
The African Middle Stone Age
FROM THE FIELD: the Strange Case of the Grimaldi Figurines, by Michael S. Bisson
Comparing the Middle Stone Age and the Middle Paleolithic
Early Modern Humans in the Middle East
The Archaeological Record
Chronology
Assessing the Middle Eastern Pattern
TOOLBOX: Luminescence Dating
The Arrival of Modern Humans in Europe and the Fate of the Neanderthals
The Fossil Record
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Modern Human Origins and Questions of Race
Genetic Evidence
Archaeological Evidence
The Last Neanderthals
Summing Up the Evidence
The Upper Paleolithic
Chronology
Stone and Bone Tools
Human Burials
TOOLBOX: Use Wear Analysis
Artwork
Site Structure
Subsistence
Explaining the Upper Paleolithic
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
The Peopling of Australia and the New World
Modern Humans in East Asia
Australia
Dating the Earliest Human Occupation
Megafauna Extinction
Rock Art
Voyaging On
TOOLBOX: Experimental Archaeology
The New World
Clovis First
TOOLBOX: Radiocarbon Calibration
Pre-Clovis
Early Arrival Model
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Repatriation of Indigenous Burial Remains
The Solutrean Hypothesis
The Skeletal Evidence
FROM THE FIELD: Mawlukhotepun���Working Together, by Susan Blair
Clovis Adaptations and Megafauna Extinction
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Perspectives on Agriculture
Introduction: Definitions of Agriculture
Towers, Villages, and Longhouses
Setting the Scene
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Political Borders and Archaeology
Stage 1: Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran
Technology
Settlements
FROM THE FIELD: the Author on His Fieldwork at Wadi Mataha
Domestication
Stage 2: the Natufian
Technology
Settlements
Domestication
Stage 3: the Early Neolithic
Technology
Settlements
Ritual
TOOLBOX: Harris Matrix
Domestication
Stage 4: Late Neolithic
TOOLBOX: Paleoethnobotany
Technology
Settlement and Ritual
Domestication
Assessing the Neolithic Revolution
The Spread of Agriculture to Europe
Summing Up the Evidence
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
MOUNDS AND MAIZE
Plant Domestication in Mesoamerica
TOOLBOX: AMS Radiocarbon Dating
Maize Agriculture in the
American Southwest
The Formative Period
Summing Up the Evidence
TOOLBOX: Hand-Built Pottery
Eastern North America
The Indigenous Domestication of Plants
The Adena and Hopewell
Intensification of Maize Agriculture
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Who Owns the Past?
The People Behind the Transition
Summing Up the Evidence
FROM THE FIELD: "Towns They Have None:" In Search of New England's Mobile Farmers, by Elizabeth S. Chilton
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
A Feast of Diversity
Africa
Villages of Hunter Gatherers
Pastoralists
The First Farmers
FROM THE FIELD: Ethiopian Farmers Yesterday and Today, by Catherine D'Andrea
Summing Up the Evidence
New Guinea
Clearing Forests and Draining Swamps
TOOLBOX: Pollen, Phytoliths, and Starch Grains
The Andes
Domestication in the Andean Highlands
Coastal Villages
The Cotton Preceramic
The Role of El Niuo
Summing Up the Evidence
East Asia
Early Pottery
The First Farmers
TOOLBOX: Residue Analysis
The Development of Farming Societies
Summing Up the Evidence
ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE WORLD: Archaeology and the Environment
Questioning the Neolithic
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions

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