Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences

ISBN-10: 0205628079
ISBN-13: 9780205628070
Edition: 7th 2009
Authors: Bruce L. Berg
List price: $94.60
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Book details

List price: $94.60
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/3/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.298
Language: English

Earl J. Hess is Stewart W. McClelland Chair in history at Lincoln Memorial University and has written many books on Civil War history, including In the Trenches at Petersburg: Field Fortifications and Confederate Defeat and Kennesaw Mountain: Sherman, Johnston, and the Atlanta Campaign.

Preface
Introduction
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Schools of Thought
Use of Triangulation in Research Methodology
Qualitative Strategies: Defining an Orientation
From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Why Use Qualitative Methods?
A Plan of Presentation
References
Designing Qualitative Research
Theory and Concepts
Ideas and Theory
Reviewing the Literature
Evaluating Web Sites
The Two-Card Method
Theory, Reality, and the Social World
Framing Research Problems
Operationalization and Conceptualization
Designing Projects
Concept Mapping
Creating a Concept Map
Setting and Population Appropriateness
Sampling Strategies
Data Collection and Organization
Data Storage, Retrieval, and Analysis
Dissemination
Trying It Out
References
Ethical Issues
Research Ethics in Historical Perspective
From Guidelines to Law: Regulations on the Research Process
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
IRBs and Their Duties
Clarifying the Role of IRBs
Active Versus Passive Consent
Active Versus Passive Consent in Internet Research
Membership Criteria for IRBs
Ethical Codes
Some Common Ethical Concerns in Behavioral Research
Covert Versus Overt Researcher Roles
New Areas for Ethical Concern: Cyberspace
Protection for Children
Debriefing the Subjects
Informed Consent and Implied Consent
Confidentiality and Anonymity
Keeping Identifying Records
Strategies for Safeguarding Confidentiality
Securing the Data
Objectivity and Careful Research Design
Trying It Out
References
A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewing
Dramaturgy and Interviewing
Types of Interviews
The Standardized Interview
The Unstandardized Interview
The Semistandardized Interview
The Interview Schedule
Schedule Development
Question Order (Sequencing), Content, and Style
Communicating Effectively
A Few Common Problems in Question Formulation
Affectively Worded Questions
The Double-Barreled Question
Complex Questions
Pretesting the Schedule
Long Versus Short Interviews
Telephone Interviews
Advantages of the Telephone Interview
Disadvantages of the Telephone Interview
Computer Assisted Interviewing
Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)
Web-Based In-Depth Interviews
Conducting an Interview: A Natural or an Unnatural Communication?
The Dramaturgical Interview
Interviewer Roles and Rapport
The Role of the Interviewee
The Interviewer as a Self-Conscious Performer
Social Interpretations and the Interviewer
The Interviewer's Repertoire
Interviewers' Attitudes and Persuading a Subject
Developing an Interviewer Repertoire
Techniques to Get New Researchers Started
Taking the Show on the Road
The Ten Commandments of Interviewing
Know Your Audience
Curtain Calls
Analyzing Data Obtained from the Dramaturgical Interview
Beginning an Analysis
Systematic Filing Systems
Short-Answer Sheets
Analysis Procedures: A Concluding Remark
Trying It Out
Notes
References
Focus Group Interviewing
What are Focus Group Interviews?
The Moderator's Role
Some Problems to Avoid in Focus Group Interviewing
The Evolution of Focus Group Interviews
Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Group Interviewing
Focus Group Interviewing and Face-to-Face Interviewing
Focus Group Interviewing and Participant Observation
Focus Group Interviewing and Unobtrusive Measures
Facilitating Focus Group Dynamics: How Focus Groups Work
The Moderator's Guide
Introduction and Introductory Activities
Statement of the Basic Rules or Guidelines for the Interview
Short Question-and-Answer Discussions
Special Activities or Exercises
Guidance for Dealing with Sensitive Issues
Basic Ingredients in Focus Groups
Analyzing Focus Group Data
Confidentiality and Focus Group Interviews
Recent Trends in Focus Groups: Online Focus Groups
Conclusion
Trying It Out
Notes
References
Ethnographic Field Strategies
Accessing a Field Setting: Getting In
Reflectivity and Ethnography
Critical Ethnography
The Attitude of the Ethnographer
The Researcher's Voice
Gaining Entry
Becoming Invisible
Dangers of Invisibility
Other Dangers During Ethnographic Research
Watching, Listening, and Learning
How to Learn: What to Watch and Listen For
Field Notes
Computers and Ethnography
OnLine Ethnography
Analyzing Ethnographic Data
Other Analysis Strategies: Typologies, Sociograms, and Metaphors
Typologies
Sociograms
Metaphors
Disengaging: Getting Out
Trying It Out
References
Action Research
The Basics of Action Research
Identifying the Research Question(s)
Gathering the Information to Answer the Question(s)
Analyzing and Interpreting the Information
Procedures for Using Interview and Ethnographic Data
Guiding Questions of Analysis: Why, What, How, Who, Where, When?
Descriptive Accounts and Reports
Sharing the Results with the Participants
When to Use and When Not to Use Action Research
The Action Researcher's Role
Types of Action Research
Technical/Scientific/Collaborative Mode
A Practical/Mutual Collaborative/Deliberate Mode
Emancipating or Empowering/Enhancing/Critical Science Mode
Photovoice and Action Research
The Goals in Photovoice
Action Research: A Reiteration
Trying It Out
References
Unobtrusive Measures in Research
Archival Strategies
Public Archives
Private Archives: Solicited and Unsolicited Documents
A Last Remark about Archival Records
Physical Erosion and accretion: Human Traces as Data Sources
Erosion Measures
Accretion Measures
Some Final Remarks about Physical Traces
Trying It Out
References
Historiography and Oral Traditions
What Is Historical Research?
Life Histories and Historiography
What Are the Sources of Data of Historical Researchers?
Doing Historiography: Tracing Written History as Data
External Criticism
Internal Criticism
What Are Oral Histories?
Trying It Out
References
Case Studies
The Nature of Case Studies
Theory and Case Studies
The Individual Case Study
The Use of Interview Data
The Use of Personal Documents
Intrinsic, Instrumental, and Collective Case Studies
Case Study Design Types
Exploratory Case Studies
Explanatory Case Studies
Descriptive Case Studies
The Scientific Benefit of Case Studies
Objectivity and the Case Method
Generalizability
Case Studies of Organizations
Case Studies of Communities
Data Collection for Community Case Studies
Community Groups and Interests
Trying It Out
References
An Introduction to Content Analysis
What is Content Analysis?
Analysis of Qualitative Data
Interpretative Approaches
Social Anthropological Approaches
Collaborative Social Research Approaches
Content Analysis as a Technique
Content Analysis: Quantitative or Qualitative?
Manifest Versus Latent Content Analysis
Blending Manifest and Latent Content Analysis Strategies
Communication Components
What to Count: Levels and Units of Analysis
Category Development: Building Grounded Theory
What to Count
Combinations of Elements
Units and Categories
Classes and Categories
Discourse Analysis and Content Analysis
Open Coding
Coding Frames
A Few More Words on Analytic Induction
Interrogative Hypothesis Testing
Stages in the Content Analysis Process
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Content Analysis Process
Computers and Qualitative Analysis
Word Processors
Text Retrievers
Textbase Managers
Code-and-Retrieve Programs
Code-Based Theory Builders
Conceptual Network Builders
Qualitative Research at the Speed of Light
Trying It Out
References
Writing Research Papers: Sorting the Noodles from the Soup
Plagiarism: What It Is, Why It's Bad, and How to Avoid It
Why Plagiarism Occurs
How to Avoid Plagiarism
Identifying the Purpose of the Writing: Arranging the Noodles
Delineating a Supportive Structure: Visual Signals for the Reader
The Title
The Abstract
The Introduction
Literature Review
Methodology
Findings or Results
Discussion/Conclusion
References, Notes, and Appendices
Presenting Research Material
Disseminating the Research: Professional Meetings and Publications
A Word About the Content of Papers and Articles
Write It, Rewrite It, Then Write It Again!
A Few Writing Hints
A Final Note
Notes
References
Name Index
Subject Index

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