Classroom Assessment Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction

ISBN-10: 0205485847
ISBN-13: 9780205485840
Edition: 4th 2007 (Revised)
List price: $89.40
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Description: ldquo;The 4th edition of McMillan, Classroom Assessment, has the essentials teachers should know when they are in the field.rdquo; -Saramma T. Mathew, Troy University Classroom Assessment provides prospective and current teachers with a concise,  More...

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Book details

List price: $89.40
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/24/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

ldquo;The 4th edition of McMillan, Classroom Assessment, has the essentials teachers should know when they are in the field.rdquo; -Saramma T. Mathew, Troy University Classroom Assessment provides prospective and current teachers with a concise, non-technical, and practical guide to conducting a full range of high-quality classroom assessments. The text emphasizes assessment in the context of the realities of teaching and teacher decision-making in an era of standards-based education. Assessment methods are integrated with instruction and presented according to when teachers evaluate students (before, during, and after an instructional unit), the learning targets that are measured, and standards emphasized in state-wide testing. There is considerable emphasis on the nature of learning targets and how different assessments are most appropriate for different targets. For each assessment technique, suggestions for effective practice are presented with examples, case studies, and teacher interviews. New to This Edition bull; bull;Shows through ldquo;Teacherrsquo;s Cornerrdquo; segments how actual teachers apply principles in their classrooms so that students can readily transfer lessons to actions bull;Provides expanded coverage of formative assessment and the concept of alignment of classroom assessments with large-scale assessments and standards to meet current classroom needs bull;Gives more comprehensive coverage of large-scale testing for accountability and the role of state standards in influencing classroom assessment bull;Emphasizes the difference between assessment of learning and assessment for learning to illustrate how assessment affects lessons and daily activity bull;Includes new and extensive treatment of the role of student motivation and the effect of feedback and praise on motivation bull;Has an Instructorrsquo;s Manual/Test Bank and Companion Website with additional resources available online by contacting your local representative Package this text with [Insert MyLabSchool Logo] a powerful set of online tools that bring the classroom to life! Visit www.mylabschool.com for more information!

James H. McMillan is Professor and Chair of the Department of Foundations of Education at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, where he teaches educational research and assessment courses and directs the Research and Evaluation Track of the PhD in Education program. He is also Executive Director of the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium, a partnership of Virginia Commonwealth University and eight Richmond-area school divisions that conducts and disseminates applied research. His current research interests include classroom and large-scale formative assessment. He has recently published the fifth edition of Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction and edited Formative Classroom Assessment: Theory into Practice. He has authored three educational research methods textbooks and published numerous articles in journals, including the American Educational Research Journal, the Journal of Educational Psychology, Contemporary Educational Psychology, and Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice.

Preface
The Role of Assessment in Teaching
Integrating Instruction and Assessment
The Realities of Teaching
Instructional Decision Making and Assessment
What Is Classroom Assessment?
Purpose
Measurement
Evaluation
Use
Research on Learning, Motivation, Instruction, and Curriculum: Implications for Assessment
Recent Trends in Classroom Assessment
The Influence of Large-Scale Accountability Testing
Teachers' Classroom Assessment and Grading Practices Decision Making
Assessment Standards for Teachers
Summary
What's Coming
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Learning Targets and Standards
What Are Learning Targets?
Educational Goals
Objectives
Standards-Based Education
Criteria
Expectations
Learning Targets
Types of Learning Targets
Knowledge and Simple Understanding Learning Targets
Deep Understanding and Reasoning Learning Targets
Skill Learning Targets
Product Learning Targets
Affective Learning Targets
Sources of Learning Targets and Standards
Bloom's Taxonomy of Objectives
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Objectives
Professional Preparation
Textbooks
Existing Lists of Objectives
National and State Standards
Criteria for Selecting Learning Targets and Standards
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
High-Quality Classroom Assessment
What Is High-Quality Classroom Assessment?
Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets
Appropriateness of Assessment Methods
Types of Assessment Methods
Matching Targets with Methods
Validity
What Is a Valid Assessment?
How Is Validity Determined?
Reliability
What Is a Reliable Score?
Assessment Error
How Is Reliability Determined?
Sources of Reliability Evidence
Factors Influencing Reliability Estimates
Fairness
Student Knowledge of Learning Targets and Assessments
Opportunity to Learn
Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills
Avoiding Student Stereotyping
Avoiding Bias in Assessment Tasks and Procedures
Accommodating Special Needs
Positive Consequences
Positive Consequences for Students
Positive Consequences for Teachers
Alignment
Practicality and Efficiency
Teacher Familiarity with the Method
Time Required
Complexity of Administration
Ease of Scoring
Ease of Interpretation
Cost
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Assessment before Instruction: Learning about Your Students
Before School Begins: What Do You Know about Your Students?
School Records
Norm-Referenced Standardized Test Scores
Standards-Based State and District Test Scores
Information Cards
After the First Week: Now What Do You Know about Your Students?
Informal Observation
Structured Exercises
Pretests
Teacher Expectations
High-Quality Preinstructional Assessment
Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets
Appropriateness of Assessment Methods
Validity
Reliability
Fairness
Positive Consequences
Alignment
Practicality and Efficiency
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Formative Assessment: Assessing and Promoting Student Progress during Instruction
Formative Assessment
Informal Observation
Assessing Nonverbal Behavior
Assessing Voice-Related Cues
Sources of Error in Informal Observation
Using Oral Questioning to Assess Student Progress
Purposes of Questioning
Characteristics of Effective Questioning to Assess Student Progress
Using Homework, In-Class Assignments, and Quizzes
Homework
In-Class Assignments
Quizzes
Providing Feedback and Praise
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Characteristics of Effective Praise
Student Self-Assessment
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Objectively Scored Assessments of Knowledge and Simple Understanding: Completion, Short-Answer, and Selected-Response Items
Preparing for Summative Assessment
Representative Sampling
Number and Length of Assessments
Use of Assessments Provided by Textbook and Test Publishers
Preparing Students for Summative Assessments
Scheduling the Summative Assessment
When Summative Assessments Should Be Constructed
Types of Knowledge and Simple Understanding Targets
Knowledge Representation
Declarative Knowledge and Understanding
Procedural Knowledge and Understanding
Assessing Knowledge
Completion and Short-Answer Items
Matching Items
True/False and Other Binary-Choice Items
Multiple-Choice Items
Assessing Simple Understanding: Comprehension and Application
Assessing Comprehension
Assessing Application
Putting Tests Together
Preparing Test Directions
Arranging Items
Physical Layout of the Test
Administering Classroom Assessments
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Selected-Response, Short-Answer, and Essay Items: Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning
What Is Deep Understanding?
What Are Reasoning Skills?
Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain
Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy
Ennis's Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities
Quellmalz and Hoskyn's Framework for Reasoning Strategies
Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning
Short-Answer and Selected-Response Items
Essay Items
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Performance Assessments: Assessing Deep Understanding, Reasoning, and Skills
What Is Performance Assessment?
Strengths and Limitations of Performance Assessments
Learning Targets for Performance Assessments
Deep Understanding
Reasoning
Skills
Products
Constructing Performance Tasks
Restricted- and Extended-Type Performance Tasks
Performance Task Descriptions and Contexts
Performance Task Question or Prompt
Criteria and Rubrics
Performance Criteria
Rating Scales
Rubrics
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Portfolios: Assessing Understanding, Reasoning, Skills, and Products
What Are Portfolios?
Advantages
Disadvantages
Planning for Portfolio Assessment
Purpose
Identify Physical Structure
Determine Sources of Content
Determine Student Self-Reflective Guidelines and Scoring Criteria
Implementing Portfolio Assessment
Review with Students
Supplying Portfolio Content
Student Self-Evaluations
Teacher Evaluation
Student-Teacher Conferences
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Assessing Affective Traits and Dispositions
Are Affective Targets Important?
What Are Affective Traits and Learning Targets?
Attitude Targets
Value Targets
Motivation Targets
Academic Self-Concept Targets
Social Relationship Targets
Classroom Environment Targets
Affective Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Methods of Assessing Affective Targets
Teacher Observation
Student Self-Report
Peer Ratings
Which Method or Combination of Methods Should I Use?
Ensuring Anonymity
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Assessing Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings
Legal Mandates
Assessing Students for Identification
Steps before Identification
Identification
Limited-English-Proficient Students
Assessment Problems Encountered by Students with Special Needs
Comprehension Difficulties
Auditory Difficulties
Visual Difficulties
Time Constraint Difficulties
Anxiety
Embarrassment
Variability of Behavior
Assessment Accommodations
Adaptations in Test Directions, Construction, and Format
Adaptations in Test Administration
Adaptations in Testing Site
Grading and Reporting Accommodations
Grading Accommodations
Reporting Accommodations
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Grading and Reporting Student Performance
Teachers' Judgments in Grading
Functions of Marking and Grading
Providing Feedback
Incorporating Factors Other Than Performance
Basis of Comparison
Motivation
Approaches to Marking and Grading
Letter Grades
Percentage Correct
Pass-Fail
Checklists
Standards-Based
Written Descriptions
Determining Report Card (Composite) Grades
Select What to Include in the Final Grade
Select Weights for Each Assessment
Combining Different Scores and Grades
Borderline Grades
Suggestions for Fair Grading
Reporting Student Progress to Parents
Report Cards
Written Information
Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-Led Conferences
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
Administering and Interpreting Standardized and State Standards-Based Tests
Fundamental Descriptive Statistics
Frequency Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Measures of Relationship
Types of Derived Standardized Test Scores
Standard Scores
Grade Equivalent Scores
Interpreting Standardized and State Standards-Based Tests
Standard Error of Measurement
Alignment
Interpretation of Norm-Referenced Standardized Tests
Criterion-Referenced/Standards-Based Interpretations
Understanding Standardized Test Score Reports
Interpreting Test Reports for Parents
Preparing Students to Take Standardized Tests
Administering Standardized Tests
Summary
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
Suggestions for Action Research
The Scope of a Teacher's Professional Role and Responsibilities for Student Assessment
The Student Evaluation Standards
Glossary
References
Index

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