Stage Lighting Fundamentals and Applications

ISBN-10: 020546100X
ISBN-13: 9780205461004
Edition: 2004
Authors: Richard Dunham
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Book details

List price: $74.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Publication date: 10/13/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.958
Language: English

Preface
Light: The Medium
The Nature of Light
What is Light?
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The Visible Spectrum
Illuminance and Luminance[[emdash]]Five Metrics
Luminous Flux
Illuminance
Luminous Intensity
Luminance
Luminous Exitance
The Eye and Seeing
Physiology of the Eye
The Controllable Qualities of Light
Intensity
Distribution
Color
Movement
Designer Profile: Ken Billington
Functions of Lighting
Visibility
Establishing a Scene
Modeling
Mood
Focus
Composition
Style
Staging the Story
Ryhthm
For Further Reading
Light and Perception
Visibility
Intensity or Brightness
Relative Intensity
Psychological Responses
Intensity Related Issues
Mood Alteration
Overstimulation
Glare
Color Perception
Adaptation
Defining Form and Shape
Front Light
Sidelight
Downlight and Backlight
Designer Profile Marilyn Lowey
Key and Fill
Silhouettes and Grazing
Shape
Composition
Movement and Light
Cues and Transitions
For Further Reading
Color and Its Effects
What is Color?
The Visible Spectrum
Primary Colors
CIE Chromaticity Chart
Color Temperature
Color Rendering
Additive and Subtractive Mixing
Additive Mixing
Subtractive Mixing
Filtering Light
Color Media
Plastic Media
Spectral Analysis of Gel
Glass Media
Dichroic Filters
Diffusion
Creating Color Through Light
Color Prediction
Red Shift/Amber Drift
Complementary Tint System
Psychological Effects of Color
Color Contrast
Adaptation and Afterimages
Practical Use of Color in Lighting Design
Designer Considerations for Color and Light
Designer Profile Mark Stanley
For Further Reading
Light: The Tools
The Practitioners Theatrical and Live Performance Production
Design Professionals
Designer Profile John Martin
Theatrical Crews
Film and Video
Design Professionals
Production Crews
Architectural Lighting
Unions and Certifications
Professional Organizations and Societies
For Further Reading
Electricity
Basics of Electricity
Atomic Theory
Electrical Potential
Grounding
Fundamental Circuits
Conductors and Insulators
Series Circuits
Parallel Circuits
Units of Measurement and the Essential Formulas
Units of Measure
Power Formula and Ohm's Law
Determination of Lamp Load
Direct Current Verses Alternating Current
Direct Current
AC Power Generation
Transformers
Power Distribution
Electrical Services
Electrical Hardware
Wire
Cables
Circuit Protection
Switches
Dimmers
Company Switches and Distribution Panels
Commercial Distribution
Theatrical Distribution
Electrical Safety
For Further Reading
Lamps and Other Light Sources
Lumens and Lamp Life
Lamps and Color
Incandescent Lamps
Filaments
Bulbs
Bases
Light Center Length (LCL)
Tungsten-Halogen or Quartz Lamps
Arc Light Sources
Limelight
Carbon-Arc
Short-Arc and High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
Short-Arc Lamps
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
Gaseous Discharge Lamps
Fluorescent Lamps
Low -Voltage Lamps
ANSI Codes
LEDs
Lasers
For Further Reading
Luminaire Fundamentals
Basic Principles of Optics
Reflection
Transmission
Refraction
An Essential Luminaire
Luminaire Maintenance
Photometics
Beam Angle and Field Angle
Photometric Data and Cut Sheets
Choosing Luminaires
Entertainment Luminaires
Spotlights
Followspots
Followspot Pickup Techniques
Floodlights
Optical Accessories
Hanging Accessories
Practicals
For Further Reading
Control Fundamentals
Brightness Control and Dimming
Circuiting
Mastering
Mechanical Mastering
Elecrical Mastering
Electronic Mastering
Principles of Electronic Dimming
Gating
Dimmer Curves and Trimming
New Trends in Electronic Dimming (Sine Wave Dimming)
Control Protocols
Analog Control
Digital Control
Lighting Control Consoles
Preset Control
Common Control Functions of Preset Consoles
Rock and Roll Console Features
Memory Control
Additional Controls in Computer Consoles
Automated Control Consoles
Show Control
State of the Art Control
Dimmer-per-Circuit
Multiplexing (Dimmer DoublingTM)
Distributed Dimming
Wireless Dimming
For Further Reading
Advanced Equipment and Personal Computers in Lighting
Primary Control of Advanced Gear
DMX Control
Binary Code and Addressing
Ten Practical Tips for Setting up DMX Networks
Several Programming Tips for Working with Automated Lighting
Sophisticated Control of Advanced Gear
Accessories for Conventional Luminaires
Scrollers
Moving Yokes
Moving Mirror Accessories
Gobo Rotators
Automated Lighting
Common Automated Lighting Effect Cues
Moving Heads (Moving Yokes)
Scanners (Moving Mirrors)
Non-traditional Sources
Ballasted Fixtures
Strobes
Fiber Optics
LEDs
Lasers
The Personal Computer
CAD and Drafting Applications
Design Paperwork
Control and Off-line Editing
Communication and Training
Design Analysis
Visualization
For Further Reading
Light: Design Fundamentals
Essentials of Lighting Design
Special Considerations in Lighting Design
Directors and Collaboration
The Influences of Light
Controllable Quantities of Light
Functions of Lighting
Designer Profile: Brian MacDevitt
Analysis for Lighting
Script Analysis and Entertainment Designs
Scenic Breakdown of Arthur Miller's The Crucible
Style in Lighting
Conceptualization
Additional Preparation
Design Research
Design and Production Meetings
Rehearsals
Developing Lighting Schemes and Concepts
Lighting Keys
Communicating Design Ideas
Storyboards
Lighting Scores
Light Labs
Computer Visualization
For Further Reading
Basics of General Illumination
Lighting the Subject Typical Theatrical Lighting Positions Proscenium Theatre
Hanging Positions and Lighting Distribution
Black Box Theatre
Variations
Floorplans and Sections
Basics of General Illumination or Area Lighting
Primary Formula Approaches for Area Lighting
Single Source System
Wash System
The McCandless System
Double or Triple Hanging
Area versus Color Control
Alternative Systems for Area Lighting
Key and Fill
The Washed Stage
Zone Lighting
Jewel Lighting
Building on General Lighting
Focus Patterns for Common Wash Systems
Special Areas
Sculpting and Modeling Accents
Blending and Toning Accents
Motivational Accents
Additional Lighting Demands
Special Visibility
Lighting Costumes
Lighting for Scenery
Effects Lighting
Designer Profile Jeff Davis
For Further Reading
Plotting the Design
Translating Concepts and Lighting Keys into Practical Design Choices
Working with Floorplans and Sections
Floorplans or Groundplans
Sections
An Approach to Plotting a Design
Preliminary Tasks/Preparation
Rehearsals
The Wish List
Making a Design Practical
The Tentative Hookup
The Rough Light Plot
Drafting and the Lighting Design
Drafting Light Plots
Common Numbering Practices
Drafting the Section
Lighting Schedules and Design Paperwork
Hookup
Instrument Schedule
Magic Sheets
Shop Orders
CAD Drafting and Lighting Design
For Further Reading
Moving into the Venue
Final Preparations for the Load-in
The Cue Synopsis
The Load-in
A Typical Load-in Schedule
The Focus Call
The Level Setting or Cue Writing Session
Cueing Aids for Memory Consoles
Cueing Aids
Rehearsals in the Venue
Technical Rehearsals
Dress Rehearsals, Previews, and Openings
Running and Maintaining the Production
Designer Profile Beverly Emmons
For Further Reading
Variations on Essential Theatrical Design
Thrust and Arena Productions
Thrust Productions
Arena Productions
Outdoor Dramas and Festival Productions
Transfer Productions
Touring Productions
Repertory Productions
Designing for Specific Genre
Designer Profile F. Mitchell Dana
For Further Reading
Light: Design Applications
Traditional Areas of Theatrical Design (Drama, Dance, Opera, and Musical Theatre)
Lighting for Drama
Performance Considerations
Design Techniques
Dance Lighting
Performance Considerations
Design Techniques
Designer Profile Jennifer Tipton
Opera and Operetta Lighting
Performance Considerations
Design Techniques
Lighting Musical Theatre
Performance Considerations
Design Techniques
Common Musical Theatre Cueing Terminology
For Further Reading
Non-Traditional Entertainment Design
The Music Scene (Revues, Clubs, and Concert Lighting)
Musical Revues
Nightclubs and Dance Club Lighting
Concert Lighting
Designer Profile James L. Moody
The Spectacle Performance
Headline Acts
Arena Productions and Stadium Productions
Designer Profile Jeff Ravitz
Dedicated Venues
Additional Areas of Spectacle
Trade Shows, Industrials, and Corporate Events
Corporate Mentality
Designer Profile Betsy Adams
Film and Video Basics
Light and the Camera
Key and Fill Light
Control Elements
Key Elelments in Film/Video Illumination
Three-Point Lighting
Designer Profile William L. Klages
For Further Reading
Additional Lighting Applications
Retail and Exhibit Lighting
Lighting Layers
Essentials of Retail and Museum/Gallery Lighting
Designer Profile Cindy Limauro
Architectural Lighting
Unique Qualities and Demands of Architectural Lighting
Architectural Luminaire Classifications
Key Elements in Architectural General Illumination
The Architectural Lighting Design Process
Lighting Design Questions
Designer Profile Robert Shook
Daylighting
Lighting Green and Lighting Economics
Landscape Lighting
Lighting Landscapes
Essential Approaches to Lighting Landscapes
Principles of Landscape Lighting
Themed Design and Specialty Lighting
The Story
Development of a Themed Project
Considerations of Themed (Specialty) Lighting Design
Designer Profile Tom Ruzika
Virtual Lighting (Renderings, Virtual Reality, Gaming, etc.)
Virtual Design
Designer Profile Chris Wells
Virtual Light Sources
Lighting Techniques for Virtual Lighting
Designer Profile Christopher Higgins
For Further Reading
Projections and Lighting
A Brief History of Projection
Projection Considerations
Considerations of Projection Design
Elements of Projection
Front or Rear Projection?
Traditional Projection Equipment
Lensless Projectors
Lens Projectors
The Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight (ERS)
The 35mm Projector
Calculations Regarding Projectors and Lenses
Scenic Projectors
Slides and Source Materials
Projection Screens
Front-Projection Screens
Rear-Projection Screens
Practical Issues of Projection
Two Critical Considerations (Path and Balance)
Spill and Ambient Light
Image Size
Distortion
Keystone Correction
Mathematical Grid for Keystone Correction
Digital Projectors and Lights, LCD/LED Screens, and Media Severs
Lasers and Effects Projection
Convergence
For Further Reading
Light: Online Application Chapters
The Music Scene (Revues, Clubs, and Concert Lighting)
Musical Revues
Evolution of Club and Concert Lighting
Nightclubs and Dance Club Lighting
Unique Issues in Concert Lighting
Touring Successfully
Concert Gear
Plotting Principles for Concert Lighting
Cueing Principles for Musical Events and Concerts
For Further Reading
The Spectacle Performance
Headline Acts
Arena Productions
Stadium Productions
Specialty Shows with Spectacle
Dedicated Venues
Additional Areas of Spectacle
For Further Reading
Trade Shows, Industrials, and Corporate Events
Trade Shows
Fashion Shows
Corporate Meetings
Industrials
For Further Reading
Film and Video Basics
Unique Qualities of Film and Video
Light and the Camera
Latitude and Contrast Ratios
Light Meters
Film and Video Luminaires
Lighting Accessories Film and Video Control ElementsFilters, Color Correction, and Diffusion
Film/Video Studios and Sound Stages
Film/Video Production Practices
Key Elements in Film/Video Illumination
Three-Point Lighting
Following Source
Area Lighting for Film and Video
Special Cases of Lighting for Film and Video
For Further Reading
Display/Retail and Exhibit/Museum Lighting
Essentials of Display and Exhibit Lighting
Lighting Layers
Principles of Retail Lighting
Display Cabinets
Window Displays
Essentials of Museum and Gallery Lighting
Exposure and Conservation
Daylighting in Museums and Galleries
Energy Efficiency, Economics, and Maintenance
For Further Reading
Architectural Lighting
Unique Qualities/Demands of Architectural Lighting
Architectural Luminaire Classifications
Ballasts and Architectural Control Elements
Architectural Hanging/Mounting Positions
Architectural Lighting Techniques
Lighting Calculations
The Architectural Lighting Design Process
Lighting Layouts and Design Documentation
Daylighting
Lighting Green and Lighting Economics
Examples of Interior Lighting
Examples of Exterior Lighting
For Further Reading
Landscape Lighting
Lighting Landscapes
Essential Approaches to Lighting Landscapes
Distribution Patterns in Landscape Lighting
Principles of Landscape Lighting
Line-Voltage versus 12-Volt Lighting Systems
Voltage Drop
Fighting the Elements
Landscape Luminaires and Accessories
Control of Landscape Lighting
The Design Process and Documentation
Lighting Exteriors and Buildings as Landscape Design
Landscape Lighting on a Grand Scale
For Further Reading
Themed Design
Themed versus Amusement Entertainment
History of Themed Entertainment
The Story
Development of a Themed Project
Considerations of Themed (Specialty) Lighting Design
Lighting Equipment and Design Documentation
Construction/Installation Process
Examples of Themed (Specialty) Lighting Design
For Further Reading
Virtual Lighting (Renderings, Virtual Reality, Gaming, etc.)
Virtual Design
Calibration
Virtual Light Sources
Lighting Techniques for Virtual Lighting
Contrast Ratios
Rendering Approaches
Unique Properties of Virtual Rendering
Examples of Virtual Lighting
For Further Reading
Appendices
Lighting Periodicals
Lighting Equipment Manufactures
USITT Lighting Graphics Standard (Online)
IESNA Graphics (Online)
Bibliography
Index

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