Cultural Anthropology

ISBN-10: 0205454437
ISBN-13: 9780205454433
Edition: 7th 2007 (Revised)
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Description: This new edition uses a cultural materialist approach to provide students with a framework for explaining how the parts of sociocultural systems are interrelated and how they change over time.

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Book details

List price: $161.40
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/11/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 8.31" wide x 10.87" long x 0.83" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

This new edition uses a cultural materialist approach to provide students with a framework for explaining how the parts of sociocultural systems are interrelated and how they change over time.

Marvin Harris is a Graduate Research Professor of Anthropology at the University of Florida.

Yolanda Murphy, previously on the faculty of Empire State College (SUNY), is retired.Robert F. Murphy was professor of anthropology at Columbia University. He was the author of many books and articles, including Headhunter's Heritage: Social and Economic Change Among the Munduruc� Indiansand The Body Silent: The Different World of the Disabled,for which he won a Columbia University Lionel Trilling Award.R. Brian Ferguson, editor of the foreword, is professor of anthropology at Rutgers University -- Newark. His books include The State, Identity, and Violenceand Yanomami Warfare: A Political History.

In Memory of Marvin Harris
Preface
Introduction
The Five Fields of Anthropology
What Is Distinctive about Cultural Anthropology?
Holism
Fieldwork and Participant Observation
Ethnography
Ethnology
Anthropology and Science
Why Study Anthropology?
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Ethnography and Culture
The Nature of Culture
Definitions of Culture
Society, Subculture, and Sociocultural System
Enculturation
Cultural Relativism
Science and the Relativity of Truth
Limitations of the Enculturation Concept
Diffusion
Fieldwork and the Mental and Behavioral Aspects of Culture
Emic and Etic Aspects of Culture
Emics, Etics, and Sacred Cows
The Universal Pattern
The Diversity of Anthropological Theories
Cultural Materialism
Anthropology's Origins
Nineteenth-Century Evolutionism and Social Darwinism
Marxist Evolutionism
Historical Particularism
British Functionalism and Structural Functionalism
Culture and Personality
Cultural Ecology
Biological Anthropology and Evolutionary Psychology
Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropology
Postmodernism
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Shakespeare in the Bush
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: How to Ask for a Drink
The Evolution of the Capacity for Culture
Genes and Natural Selection
Natural Selection and the "Struggle for Survival"
Natural Selection and Behavior
Nonhuman Culture
Tools and Learning
Is It Culture?
Apes and Language
Cultural "Takeoff"
Cultural Transmission
Summary
Questions to Think About
Language and Culture
Universal Features of Language
Semantic Universality
Linguistics: The Elements of Language Analysis
Phonetics and Phones
Phonemics and Phonemes
Morphemes
Syntax
Language and Symbolic Representation
Language Issues and Theories
Innate Grammatical Knowledge
Are There Superior and Inferior Languages?
No, There Are No "Primitive" Languages
Language, Thought, and Causality
Linguistic Naming Categories
Sociolinguistics
Language and Gender
Language, Social Class, and Ethnicity
Code Switching
PROFILE African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
Communicating Respect in Interethnic Encounters
Linguistic Change
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Worlds Shaped by Words
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Conversation Style: Talking on the Job
Production
The Evolution of Energy Production
The Influence of the Environment and Ecology
Carrying Capacity and the Law of Diminishing Returns
Law of the Minimum
Depletion and New Modes of Production
PROFILE Hunters and Gatherers-The !Kung San
Major Modes of Production
Hunting and Gathering
Horticulture
The Problem of Meat
Plow Agriculture
PROFILE Slash-and-Burn Horticulture with Hunting and Gathering-The Machiguenga
PROFILE Plow Agriculture in Northern India
Irrigation Agriculture
PROFILE Irrigation Agriculture-Luts'un
Pastoralism
PROFILE Pastoralism-The Turkana
Energy and the Evolution of Culture
Industrial Agriculture
Postindustrialism
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Adaptive Failure: Easter's End
Reproduction
The Relation between Production and Reproduction
Population Pressure versus Population Growth
Preindustrial Reproductive Practices
Treatment of Fetuses and Children
Treatment of Women
Lactation
Coital Frequency and Scheduling
The Influence of Disease and Other Natural Factors
The Costs and Benefits of Rearing Children
Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Rearing Children
The Poverty Trap
The Contraception, Abortion, and Infanticide Debate
Industrial Modes of Reproduction
PROFILE Indirect Infanticide in Northeast Brazil
Women's Status, Education, and Fertility
PROFILE Raising Children in Rural China
Fertility and the World's Most Expensive Children
Reproductive Technologies, Embryos, and Designer Babies
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Mother's Love: Death without Weeping
Economic Organization
Definition of Economy
Exchange
Generalized Reciprocity
Reciprocity and the Freeloader
Balanced Reciprocity
Trade in the Kula Ring
Redistributive Exchange
Potlatches
Reciprocity and Redistribution
The Origin of Destructive Potlatches
PROFILE Complex Hunter-Gatherers-The Kwakiutl
Stratified Redistribution
Price Market Exchange: Buying and Selling
Money
Capitalism
Property Ownership
PROFILE Primitive Capitalism? The Kapauku Case
Patterns of Work
Emergent Varieties of Capitalism
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Eating Christmas in the Kalahari
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Reciprocity and the Power of Giving
Domestic Life
The Household and the Domestic Sphere of Culture
Family Groups and the Mode of Production and Reproduction
The Nuclear Family
Polygamous Families
The Extended Family
PROFILE The Nyinba-A Polyandrous Society
PROFILE Traditional Chinese Extended Families-Costs and Benefits
One-Parent Domestic Groups
Marriage
Is Marriage Universal?
PROFILE The Flats
Legitimacy
Economic Aspects of Marriage
PROFILE U.S. Household Organization-1970 versus 2000
Domestic Groups and the Avoidance of Incest
Advantages of Exogamy
Natural Aversion
Motivations for Incest Avoidance
Evidence of Incest Avoidance
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Family and Kinship in Village India
Descent, Locality, and Kinship
Kinship
Descent
Kinship Diagrams
Cognatic and Unilineal Descent
Kindreds versus Cognatic Lineages
Unilineal Descent Groups
Postmarital Residence Patterns
Unilocal Residence
Causes of Patrilocality
Causes of Matrilocality
Causes of Avunculocality
Kinship Terminologies
Inuit Terminology
Hawaiian Terminology
Iroquois Terminology
Kin Terms Are Negotiated, Not Written in Stone
The Changing Family in North America
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Uterine Families and the Women's Community
Law, Order, and War in Nonstate Societies
Law and Order in Band and Village Societies
The Subsistence Economy versus the Political Economy
Primitive Communism?
Mobilizing Public Opinion
Shamans and Public Opinion
Headmanship
The Leopard Skin Chief
PROFILE The Mehinacu-Maintaining Peace
Nonkin Associations: Sodalities
Warfare among Hunters and Gatherers
Warfare among Sedentary Village Societies
Why War?
Yanomami Resource Scarcity
Yanomami Trekking
Warfare and Female Infanticide
PROFILE The Yanomami-Warfare and Game Animals
Warfare and Trade Goods
Warfare, the Politics of Prestige, and the "Big Man" System
PROFILE The Mae Enga-A "Big Man" Society
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Life without Chiefs
Origins of Chiefdoms and the State
The Evolution of Political Systems
From "Big Man" Systems into Chiefdoms
PROFILE: The Suiai-"Big Men" and Warfare
Infrastructural and Structural Aspects of Political Control
PROFILE The Trobriand Chiefdoms-Ranked Leadership
The Origins of States
Ideology as a Source of Power
PROFILE Hawaii-On the Threshold of the State
The State and Physical Coercion
PROFILE The Inca-A Native American Empire
Summary
Questions to Think About
Class and Caste
Class and Power
Emics, Etics, and Class Consciousness
Class and Lifestyle
Peasant Classes
The Image of Limited Good
Poverty
A "Culture of Poverty"?
Poverty in Naples
Causes of Income Inequality
Castes in India
PROFILE Poverty in the United States
Caste from the Top Down and Bottom Up
Is There a Ruling Class in the United States?
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Office Work and the Crack Alternative
Ethnicity, Race, and Racism
Ethnicity
Ethnic Empowerment
PROFILE Diversity among Hispanic Americans
Confronting Ethnocentrism
Biological Races versus Social Races versus Ethnic Groups
The One-Drop Rule
Biological Race and Culture
The Competitive Dynamics of Ethnic and Racial Groups
Ethnic Chauvinism
Defining Racism
PROFILE Elmhurst-Corona-Joining Forces across Ethnic and Racial Lines
PROFILE Black/Korean Tension in South Central Los Angeles
The Wages of Racism
Why Africa Lags
Multiethnicity in the United States
Race, Poverty, Crime, Drugs, and Welfare in the United States
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Mixed Blood
Sexuality and Gender Stratification
Sex versus Gender
Male and Female Sexual Strategies
PROFILE Mehinacu Extramarital Affairs
Sex in Mangaia versus Sex in Inis Beag
Restrictive versus Permissive Cultures
Homosexuality
Male Homosexuality
"Two-Spirit" People
PROFILE Sambia Boy-Inseminating Rituals
Female Homosexuality
Gender Ideologies
The Relativity of Gender Ideologies
Gender Stratification
Variations in Gender Stratification
Causes of Variation in Gender Stratification
Hoes, Plows, and Gender Stratification
Gender and Exploitation
Gender and Hyperindustrialism
A Theory of Gender Stratification Change
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Symbolizing Roles: Behind the Veil
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Society and Sex Roles
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: A Woman's Curse?
Psychological Anthropology
Culture and Personality
Freud's Influence
The Oedipus Complex
How Culture Constructs Personality
National Character
PROFILE Japanese National Character
Socialization Practices and the Mode of Production
Male Initiation Rites
Socialization of Children
PROFILE Childhood in Alor
Effects of Social Environment on Children
Adult Personality and Subsistence
Schemas and Cognition
Culture and Mental Illness
Schizophrenia
Depression
PROFILE Schizophrenia in Rural Ireland
Culture-Specific Psychoses
Summary
Questions to Think About
Religion
Animism
Animatism and Mana
Natural and Supernatural
Magic and Religion
The Organization of Religious Beliefs and Practices
Individualistic Cults
Shamanistic Cults
Communal Cults
Ecclesiastical Cults
PROFILE Nedembu Communal Rites of Circumcision
PROFILE The Religion of the Aztecs
Religion and Political Economy: High Gods
Revitalization Movements
Native American Revitalizations
PROFILE Melanesian Cargo Cults
Religion and Society
Incest Taboo
Taboos against Eating Pork
The Sacred Cow
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Taraka's Ghost
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Baseball Magic
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Cargo Beliefs and Religious Experience
Art
What Is Art?
Art as a Cultural Category
Art and Invention
Art and Cultural Patterning
Art and Religion
Art and Politics
The Evolution of Music and Dance
Verbal Arts
Myth and Binary Contrasts
The Complexity of Primitive Art: Campa Rhetoric
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Body Art as Visual Language
Applied Anthropology
What Is Applied Anthropology?
Research, Theory, and Action
What Do Applied Anthropologists Have to Offer?
Detecting and Controlling Ethnocentrism
A Holistic View
Etic and Emic Views of Organizations
Applied Anthropology and Development
Without Holism: Merino Sheep Fiasco
The Haitian Agroforestry Project
Archeological Knowledge and Agricultural Development
Medical Anthropology
The Humoral Theory of Medicine
Treatment Choice in Medically Pluralistic Settings
AIDS
PROFILE Why the Machiguenga Prefer Native Curers to Biomedical Health Care Providers
Forensics
Business and Anthropology
Poverty and Health
Witnessing for the Hungry and Homeless
Anthropological Advocacy
To Advocate or Not to Advocate: Is That the Question?
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Forest Development the Indian Way
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Cross-Cultural Law: The Case of the Gypsy Offender
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Notes from an Expert Witness
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: Using Anthropology
Globalization
What Is Globalization?
Colonialism and Underdevelopment
Sociocultural Evolution and Development
The Industrial Revolution
The Green Revolution
Limits to Technification and Industrial Growth
Bullock versus Tractor
PROFILE The Green Revolution in Java
PROFILE Priests and Irrigation Technology in Bali
Free Market versus Antimarket Forces
The Effect of Globalization on Indigenous Peoples
PROFILE The Machiguenga Today
Assimilation
Resistance to Oppression
The Zapatista Rebellion
Preserving Indigenous Cultures
Indigenous Peoples Today
PROFILE The Yanomami Today
PROFILE The !Kung Today
Vanishing Knowledge
Summary
Questions to Think About
Through the Lens of Cultural Materialism: The Kayapo Resistance
Glossary
References
Index

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