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Becoming a Critical Thinker A User-Friendly Manual

ISBN-10: 0205063454
ISBN-13: 9780205063451
Edition: 6th 2012 (Revised)
Authors: Sherry Diestler
List price: $116.80
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Description: This book trains students to distinguish high-quality, well-supported arguments from arguments with little or no evidence to support them. It develops the skills required to effectively evaluate the many claims facing them as citizens, learners,  More...

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Book details

List price: $116.80
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/13/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

This book trains students to distinguish high-quality, well-supported arguments from arguments with little or no evidence to support them. It develops the skills required to effectively evaluate the many claims facing them as citizens, learners, consumers, and human beings, and also to be effective advocates for their beliefs. KEY TOPICS: Chapter topics include the foundations of arguments, reality and value assumptions and ethics, inductive arguments and generalizations, reasoning errors, the power of language, media literacy, fairmindedness, and persuasive speaking. MARKET: For critical thinkers who want to be discerning about the messages they read or hear; make decisions based on careful consideration of both facts and values; be alert to distortion in reporting and advertising; and, defend their own viewpoints.

Preface
Foundations of Arguments
Values and Ethics
Reality of assumptions
Inductive arguments: Statistical and causal generalizations
Inductive generalizations: Controlled studies and analogies
Reasoning errors
The power of language
Suggestion in media
Fair-mindedness
Persuasive speaking
Credits
Index
Preface
Foundations of Arguments
Who Is a Critical Thinker and When Do You Need to Be One?
The Structure of Argument
Individual or Class Exercise: Making a Decision
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
"Educational Ticket"
"War on Drugs Fails: We Need New Approach"
"Drugged Driving"
Articles for Discussion
"16-Year-Old Sailor Was Already Off Course"
"LeBron James' Decision a Cruel Blow to His Hometown"
"Roundup: NBA Team Owner Backs LeBron James' Decision"
"Onstage and Backstage: Two Jobs. One Actor. What Do You Choose?"
"Talk-Show Host Angers Disabled Community"
"Radio Show on Rights of Disabled Defended"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
"The Road Not Taken"
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Similar Films and Classics
Values and Ethics
What Price Ethics and Can You Afford Not to Pay?
Value Assumptions And Conflicts
Class Exercise
Ethics--An Important Dimension Of Values
Ideal Values Versus Real Values
Ethics In Argumentation
Ethical Decision Making
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
" Salvation Army Turns Down $100,000 Donation"
Articles for Discussion
"You Make the Call: Is It Goo Baseball Strategy or a Weak Attempt to Win?"
"Staffer Gets Subpoenaed"
"National Public Radio"
"Schools' Peanut Bans Spark Backlash"
"Texas College Admissions Law Under Fire: Kids in Top 10% Get in Automatically"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Similar Films and Classics
Reality of assumptions
It's Eleven O'Clock. Do You Know Where Your Assumptions Are?
Reality Assumptions
Detecting Reality Assumptions
The Importance Of Examining Assumptions
Deductive Reasoning
Using Toulmin's Method To Understand Deduction
The Uses Of Deductive Reasoning
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
Articles for Discussion
"Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits"
"Can Blacks Be Racist?"
"Wasted Food, Discovered Souls"
"Bearer of Bad News"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Similar Films and Classics
Television Shows for Analysis and Discussion
Inductive arguments: Statistical and causal generalizations
Prove It to Me-What Are the Statistics?
Inductive Reasoning
Statistical Evidence
The Many Uses Of Statistics
How The Research Is Done
Checklist For Polls And Statistical Studies
Using Surveys As Evidence
Statistical Generalizations
The Reporting Of Statistical Studies: Truths, Half-Truths, And Distortions
Causal Generalizations
Hume's Conditions For Cause And Effect
Technical Causation
Multiple Causes
Mill'S Analysis Of Cause And Effect
Using Difference And Similarity Together To Determine Cause
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
"What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer?"
"Multiple Causes of Suicide"
"Self-Segregation"
"Why Do People Start to Smoke?"
Articles for Discussion
"The Meth Epidemic"
"Understanding Facebook Addiction: Why Is Social Networking So Addictive? How Did We Get Addicted?
"ISU Researcher Studies Consequences of 'Hooking Up'"
"Drugs, Gangs on the Rise in Schools: Survey Shows Increase in Gang Activity and Drug Use in Nation's Schools"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Longer-Term Writing Assignment
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Similar Films and Classics
Inductive generalizations: Controlled studies and analogies
Who Said So? And Who Are They Anyway?
Research Design
Criteria For Evaluating Research Findings
Controversy In Research Findings
Checklist For Making, Evaluating, Repairing, And Refuting Arguments
Use Of Authority: Expert Testimony
Problems With Expert Testimony
Reasoning By Analogy
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
Articles for Discussion
"Food News Blues"
"$27 Million to Change NYC Signs from All-Caps"
"Could a Pill Help Fade Traumatic Memories?"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Similar Film Classics
Reasoning errors
I Know What I Think-Don't Confuse Me with Facts
Inadequate Reasons As Fallacies
Fallacies That Mislead
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
Key Terms
Chapter Checkup
Chapter Exercises
Articles for Discussion
"Ashamed of Strug's Sacrifice"
"Kerri Strug Made Reader Cheer"
"Keep Women Off the Streets"
"E-mail Chain Letters Deceive"
" Sunday Times Reveals Some Eco-Celeb Shame"
"Rwanda Is So Hot Right Now"
"On Comparing Global Warming Denial to Holocaust Denial"
"Does Facebook Make You Dumber? Study Shows Users of Social Networking Site Get Lower Grades"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
The power of language
What's in a Name?
Denotation And Connotation
The Power Of Connotation
Reification: When Words Take On More Power Than Reality
Meanings Are In People
The Problem Of Vagueness
Ambiguity In Language
Doublespeak, Including Weasel Words
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
Articles for Discussion
"What's in a Name?"
"Race-Based Team Names Not Tolerated in Wisconsin"
"Jennifer Aniston, The R-Word and the Aftermath"
"Weasel Words Rip My Flesh!"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Suggestion in media
Is What You See What You Get? Do You Really Want It?
Suggestion In Daily Life
Televised Suggestion
Suggestion In Print Media
The Power Of Media To Shape Information
A Bag Of Marketing And Advertising Tricks
Storytelling As Persuasion
Citizens, Consumers, And Relationships In An Age Of Technology
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
Articles for Discussion
"U.S. Mayor Uses Twitter to Help Snowbound"
"Scents and Sensibility"
"Five Fake Viral Video Campaigns: Great Gimmicks or Bad for Business?"
"The Tyranny of E-Mail"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Similar Films and Classics
Fair-mindedness
It's You and Me, Kid, and I'm Not So Sure About You
How We Defend Our Egos
Conformity And Ways To Overcome It
Emotional Reasoning And Rational Responses
Ways To Deal With Emotional Reasoning
Points Of Logical Vulnerability
Actively And Accurately Listening: Developing Empathy
The Art Of Listening Well
Precautions About Active Listening
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
Articles for Discussion
"Excerpts from How Doctors Think"
"Create Your Own Path"
"The Lock: They Argue and I Argue Back. But I Never Seem to Win. The Key: Listen-Just Listen, and You'll Start to Win."
"It Happened"
"For Women Only-What You Need to Know About the Inner Lives of Men"
"Breakfast and Tousled Cornrows"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Similar Films and Classics
Persuasive speaking
What's Your Point? How Do You Sharpen It?
Being An Advocate Of Ideas: Communicating Publicly
The Best Ways To Deal With Speech Fear
Audience Analysis
The Three Elements Of A Persuasive Argument: Ethos, Logos, And Pathos
Problem Solving And Collaborative Decision Making
The Problem-Solving Method
Chapter Review
Summary
Checkup
Exercises
Articles for Discussion
"Don't Be Shy"
"The Gettysburg Address"
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
Films for Analysis and Discussion
Credits
Index

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