Human Biodiversity Genes, Race, and History

ISBN-10: 0202020339
ISBN-13: 9780202020334
Edition: N/A
Authors: Jonathan Marks
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Description: Are humans unique? This simple question, at the very heart of the hybrid field of biological anthropology, poses one of the false of dichotomies—with a stereotypical humanist answering in the affirmative and a stereotypical scientist answering in  More...

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Book details

List price: $35.95
Publisher: Aldine Transaction
Publication date: 12/31/1995
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 321
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

Are humans unique? This simple question, at the very heart of the hybrid field of biological anthropology, poses one of the false of dichotomies—with a stereotypical humanist answering in the affirmative and a stereotypical scientist answering in the negative. The study of human biology is different from the study of the biology of other species. In the simplest terms, people's lives and welfare may depend upon it, in a sense that they may not depend on the study of other scientific subjects. Where science is used to validate ideas—four out of five scientists preferring a brand of cigarettes or toothpaste—there is a tendency to accept the judgment as authoritative without asking the kinds of questions we might ask of other citizens' pronouncements. In Human Biodiversity, Marks has attempted to distill from a centuries-long debate what has been learned and remains to be learned about the biological differences within and among human groups. His is the first such attempt by an anthropologist in years, for genetics has undermined the fundamental assumptions of racial taxonomy. The history of those assumptions from Linnaeus to the recent past—the history of other, more useful assumptions that derive from Buffon and have reemerged to account for genetic variation—are the poles of Marks's exploration.

Acknowledgments
The Hierarchy
Pattern and Process
The Pattern: Linnaeus
The Opposition: Buffon
The Process: Lamarck
The Synthesis: Darwin
The Place of Humans in Nature
Anchoring the Emergence of Humans
The Great Chain in Cultural Evolution
Emergence of the Modern Culture Theory
Change without Progress: The Biological and Social History of the Human Species
Processes and Patterns in the Evolutionary History of Our Species
Narrative as a Scientific Medium
Adaptation Stories
Disturbing the Conservative Nature of Heredity
Reproduction of Organisms: Meiosis
Reproduction of Populations: The Gene Pool
Microevolutionary Processes
Macroevolutionary Processes
Evolutionary Narratives
Human Macroevolution
Linking Data into Histories
Patterns in the Evolution of Species and Culture
Physical Anthropology as the Study of Human Variation
The History of Biology and the Biology of History
History as Inborn Propensities: Arthur de Gobineau
History, Biology, and the Theory of Progress
Social Selection: Biological Progress as Social Progress
Survival of the Fittest: Parallel Progressive Processes
Competition of a Different Sort: Progress in History without Biology
Divorce of Race and Culture: Progress as an Illusion
The Culture Concept Nudges Out the Race Concept
The Eugenics Movement
A Simple Plan for Making Life Better
Mendelism in Eugenics
American Eugenics: The Peril of the Huddled Masses
Eugenics: Science and Pseudoscience
Eugenics in National Socialist Germany
Why Eugenics Failed
Lessons for Our Time
Racial and Racist Anthropology
Racism and Eugenics
Human Diversity
Racist Studies
Racial Studies
What do Differences among Human Groups Represent?
Performance and Ability
Race as a Social Construct
The Linnaean and Buffonian Frameworks
Patterns of Variation in Human Populations
The Phenotype in Racial Studies
Developmental Plasticity: The Skull in Racial Studies
Genetics and the Human Races
Blood Group Allele Frequencies in Populations
Genetics of the Human Species
Human Molecular and Microevolutionary Genetics
Genes and Proteins
The Genome
Hemoglobin
Genome Structure and Evolution in the Globin Genes
The Comparison of Genetic Regions
Hemoglobin Variation in the Human Species
Thalassemia
Genetic Screening
Modern Eugenics
Hereditarianism
Human Diversity in the Light of Modern Genetics
Differences among the "Three Races"
The Social Nature of Geographical Categories
Patterns of Genetic Differentiation
Mitochondrial Eve
Patterns of Genetic Diversity
The Genetics of Individuality
The Human Genome Project
Who Is Related to Whom?
The Adaptive Nature of Human Variation
Patterns of Gene Flow
Adaptation
Genetic Adaptation
Human Variation as Phenotype Adaptation
Nutritional Variation
Uniquenesses of Human Adaptation
Cultural Selection
Culture as a Social Marker
Health and Human Populations
Demographic Transitions
Demography versus Eugenics
Economics and Biology
The Cultural Nature of Disease
Ethnic Diseases
Culture and Biology: AIDS
Culture as Technological Fix
Human Traits: Heritage or Habitus?
Aesop and Darwin
Sex and the Single Fruitfly
Rape as Heritage or Habitus
Proximate and Ultimate Cause in Biology
The Asphalt Jungle
Human Behavior as Heritage
Genetics and the Evolution of Human Behavior
On the Number of Michael Jordans in the Known Universe
Comparing Groups of People
Where Are the Great Jewish Boxers?
How do we Establish the Genetic Base of a Behavior?
The Genetics of Deviance
The Hereditarian Jumble
The Genetic Basis of Sexual Deviance
Genetic Behavior: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow
Platonism and the Search for Human Nature
Was Hammerstein Wrong?
Race, Xenophobia, and Lessons of History
Conclusions
Appendix: DNA Structure and Function
Index

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