Mechanical Measurements

ISBN-10: 0201847655

ISBN-13: 9780201847659

Edition: 6th 2007 (Revised)

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Description: For courses in Measurement and Instrumentation offered in departments of Engineering. This much-anticipated revision to the definitive mechanical measurements text continues to set the standard. Emphasizing precision and clarity, the authors cover fundamental issues common to all areas of measurement in Part One, then present individual chapters on applied areas of measurement in Part Two. The texts modular format makes it accessible to undergraduate students of most engineering disciplines, particularly mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, and engineering technology.

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Book details

List price: $255.00
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 8/7/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 784
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 2.706
Language: English

Preface
Fundamentals of Mechanical Measurement
The Process of Measurement: An Overview
Introduction
The Significance of Mechanical Measurement
Fundamental Methods of Measurement
Direct Comparison
Using a Calibrated System
The Generalized Measuring System
First, or Sensor-Transducer, Stage
Second, or Signal-Conditioning, Stage
Third, or Recording-Readout, Stage
Types of Input Quantities
Time Dependence
Analog and Digital Signals
Measurement Standards
Calibration
Uncertainty: Accuracy of Results
Reporting Results
Laboratory Note or Technical Memo
Full Report
Technical Paper
Final Remarks
Standards and Dimensional Units of Measurement
Introduction
Historical Background of Measurement in the United States
The SI System
Establishment of the SI System
Metric Conversion in the United States
The Standard of Length
Relationship of the Meter to the Inch
The Standard of Mass
Time and Frequency Standards
Temperature Standards
Electrical Standards
Conversions Between Systems of Units
Summary
Assessing and Presenting Experimental Data
Introduction
Common Types of Error
Classification of Errors
Terms Used in Rating Instrument Performance
Introduction to Uncertainty
Estimation of Precision Uncertainty
Sample versus Population
Probability Distributions
Theory Based on the Population
Theory Based on the Sample
An Example of Sampling
Confidence Intervals for Large Samples
Confidence Intervals for Small Samples
Hypothesis Testing for a Single Mean for a Small Sample Size (n [lesser than or equal to] 30)
Hypothesis Testing for a Single Mean for a Large Sample Size (n [greater than or equal to] 30)
The t-Test Comparison of Sample Means
The Chi-Square (x[superscript 2]) Distribution
Goodness of Fit Based on the Gaussian Distribution
Statistical Analysis by Computer
Bias and Single-Sample Uncertainty
Single-Sample Precision Uncertainty
Propagation of Uncertainty
Examples of Uncertainty Analysis
Rating Resistors
Expected Uncertainty for Flowmeter Calibration
Minimizing Error in Designing Experiments
Graphical Presentation of Data
General Rules for Making Graphs
Choosing Coordinates and Producing Straight Lines
Line Fitting and the Method of Least Squares
Least Squares for Line Fits
Uncertainty in Line Fits
Software for Curve Fitting
Summary
The Analog Measurand: Time-Dependent Characteristics
Introduction
Simple Harmonic Relations
Circular and Cyclic Frequency
Complex Relations
Beat Frequency and Heterodyning
Special Waveforms
Nonperiodic or Transient Waveforms
Amplitudes of Waveforms
Frequency Spectrum
Harmonic, or Fourier, Analysis
The Discrete Fourier Transform
Frequencies in Discretely Sampled Signals: Aliasing and Frequency Resolution
An Example of Discrete Fourier Analysis
Summary
The Response of Measuring Systems
Introduction
Amplitude Response
Frequency Response
Phase Response
Predicting Performance for Complex Waveforms
Delay, Rise Time, and Slew Rate
Response of Experimental System Elements
Simplified Physical Systems
Mechanical Elements
Mass
Spring Force
Damping
An Example of a Simple Mechanical System
The Importance of Damping
Dynamic Characteristics of Simplified Mechanical Systems
Single-Degree-of-Freedom Spring-Mass-Damper Systems
The Zero-Order System
Characteristics of First-Order Systems
The Step-Forced First-Order System
The Harmonically Excited First-Order System
Characteristics of Second-Order Systems
The Step-Excited Second-Order System
The Harmonically Excited Second-Order System
General Periodic Forcing
Electrical Elements
First-Order Electrical System
Simple Second-Order Electrical System
Calibration of System Response
Summary
Sensors
Introduction
Loading of the Signal Source
The Secondary Transducer
Classification of First-Stage Devices
Variable-Resistance Transducer Elements
Sliding-Contact Devices
Potentiometer Resolution
Potentiometer Linearity
The Resistance Strain Gage
Thermistors
The Thermocouple
Variable-Inductance Transducers
Simple Self-Inductance Arrangements
Two-Coil Mutual-Inductance Arrangements
The Differential Transformer
Variable-Reluctance Transducers
Capacitive Transducers
Piezoelectric Sensors
Semiconductor Sensors
Electrical Behavior of Semiconductors
pn-Junctions
Photodiodes
Light-Detecting Transducers
Thermal Detectors
Photon Detectors
Applications
Hall-Effect Sensors
Some Design-Related Problems
Manufacturing Tolerances
Some Temperature-Related Problems
Methods for Limiting Temperature Errors
Summary
Signal Conditioning
Introduction
Advantages of Electrical Signal Conditioning
Modulated and Unmodulated Signals
Input Circuitry
The Simple Current-Sensitive Circuit
The Ballast Circuit
Voltage-Dividing Circuits
The Voltage-Dividing Potentiometer
Loading Error
Use of End Resistors
Small Changes in Transducer Resistance
Resistance Bridges
The Voltage-Sensitive Wheatstone Bridge
The Current-Sensitive Wheatstone Bridge
The Constant-Current Bridge
The AC Resistance Bridge
Compensation for Leads
Adjusting Bridge Sensitivity
Reactance or Impedance Bridges
Resonant Circuits
Undesirable Resonance Conditions
Electronic Amplification or Gain
Electronic Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers
Typical Op-Amp Specifications
Applications of the Op Amp
Special Amplifier Circuits
Instrumentation Amplifiers
The Charge Amplifier
Filters
Some Filter Theory
Active Filters
Differentiators and Integrators
Shielding and Grounding
Shielding
Grounding
Component Coupling Methods
Summary
Digital Techniques in Mechanical Measurements
Introduction
Why Use Digital Methods?
Digitizing Mechanical Inputs
Fundamental Digital Circuit Elements
Basic Logic Elements
Combination of Logic Elements: The Flip-Flop
IC Families
IC Oscillators and Clock Signals
Digital Displays
Number Systems
Binary Codes
Binary-Coded Decimal
Position Encoders and Gray Code
Alphanumeric Codes
Bar Codes
Some Simple Digital Circuitry
Events Counter
Gating
Frequency Meter
Wave Shaping
Integrated-Circuit Counter and Frequency Meter
Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
The Computer as a Measurement System
The Microprocessor
The Microcomputer
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Input and Output Ports (I/O Ports)
External Buses
Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion
A Digital-to-Analog Converter
An Analog-to-Digital Converter
Analog-to-Digital Conversion Considerations
Digital Signal Processing
Digital Images
Getting It All Together
Summary
Readout and Data Processing
Introduction
The Electronic Counter
Event Counter
Time-Interval Meter
Events per Unit Time (EPUT) Meter
Count Error
Analog Electric Meter Indicators
Voltmeter Sensitivity
The Current Meter
AC Meters
The Multimeter and Resistance Measurement
Meters with Electronic Amplification
Digital-Readout Multimeters
The Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)
Oscilloscope Amplifiers
Sawtooth Oscillator or Time-Base Generator
Synchronization or Triggering
Additional CRO Features
Multiple Trace
Magnification and Delayed Sweep
Digital Storage Oscilloscopes
Single-Ended and Differential Inputs
XY-Plotters
Digital Waveform Recorders
The Spectrum Analyzer
LabVIEW
Applied Mechanical Measurements
Measurement of Count, Events per Unit Time, Time Interval, and Frequency
Introduction
Use of Counters
Electronic Counters
EPUT Meters
Time-Interval Meter
Stroboscopy and High-Speed Imaging
The Stroboscope
High-Speed Imaging
Frequency Standards
Global Positioning System Signals
Radio Time and Frequency Transmission
Quartz-Crystal Oscillators
Complex-Wave Oscillators and Function Generators
Lissajous Figures for Finding Frequency and Phase Relations
Heterodyne and Phase-Lock Measurements of Frequency
Measurement of Rotary Motion
Displacement and Dimensional Measurement
Introduction
A Problem in Dimensional Measurement
Gage Blocks
Assembling Gage-Block Stacks
Surface Plates
Temperature Problems
Use of Comparators
Monochromatic Light
The Interferometer
Measuring Microscopes
Fixed-Scale Microscopes
Filar Microscopes
Traveling and Traveling-Stage Microscopes
The Draw-Tube Microscope
Focusing
Digital Microscopes
Whole-Field Displacement Measurement
Displacement Transducers
The Differential Transformer or LVDT
Input Power
Advantages of the LVDT
Surface Roughness
Strain and Stress: Measurement and Analysis
Introduction
Strain Measurement
The Electrical Resistance Strain Gage
The Metallic Resistance Strain Gage
Selection and Installation Factors for Bonded Metallic Strain Gages
Circuitry for the Metallic Strain Gage
The Strain-Gage Ballast Circuit
The Strain-Gage Bridge Circuit
Bridges with Two and Four Arms Sensitive to Strain
The Bridge Constant
Lead-Wire Error
The Simple Constant-Current Strain-Gage Circuit
Temperature Compensation
The Adjacent-Arm Compensating Gage
Self-Temperature Compensation
Calibration
Commercially Available Strain-Measuring Systems
The Basic Indicator
Strain-Gage Switching
Use of Strain Gages on Rotating Shafts
Stress-Strain Relationships
The Simple Uniaxial Stress Situation
The Biaxial Stress Situation
Gage Orientation and Interpretation of Results
Gages Connected in Series
Special Problems
Cross Sensitivity
Plastic Strains and the Postyield Gage
Fatigue Applications of Resistance Strain Gages
Cryogenic Temperature Applications
High-Temperature Applications
Creep
Residual Stress Determination
Final Remarks
Measurement of Force and Torque
Introduction
Measuring Methods
Mechanical Weighing Systems
The Analytical Balance
Multiple-Lever Systems
The Pendulum Force-Measuring Mechanism
Elastic Transducers
Calibration Adjustment
The Proving Ring
Strain-Gage Load Cells
Piezoelectric Load Cells
Ballistic Weighing
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
Torque Measurement
Mechanical and Hydraulic Dynamometers
Electric Dynamometers
Transmission Dynamometers
Measurement of Pressure
Introduction
Static and Dynamic Pressures in Fluids
Pressure-Measuring Transducers
Manometry
Bourdon-Tube Gages
Elastic Diaphragms
Flat Metal Diaphragms
Corrugated Metal Diaphragms
Semiconductor Diaphragms
Additional Pressure Transducers
Strain Gages and Flat Diaphragms
Inductive Transducers
Piezoelectric Transducers
Capacitative Transducers
Strain-Gage Pressure Cells
Measurement of High Pressures
Electrical Resistance Pressure Gages
Measurement of Low Pressures
The McLeod Gage
Thermal Conductivity Gages
Ionization Gages
Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure-Measuring Systems
Gas-Filled Systems
Liquid-Filled Systems
Calibration Methods
Periodic Pressure Sources
Aperiodic Pressure Sources
Measurement of Fluid Flow
Introduction
Flow Characteristics
Obstruction Meters
Obstruction Meters for Incompressible Flow
Venturi Tube Characteristics
Flow-Nozzle Characteristics
Orifice Characteristics
Relative Merits of the Venturi, Flow Nozzle, and Orifice
Obstruction Meters for Compressible Fluids
Choked Flow and the Critical Flow Venturi Meter
Additional Flowmeters
Turbine Meters
Electromagnetic Flowmeters
Coriolis Flowmeters
Vortex Shedding Flowmeters
Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Positive Displacement Flowmeters
The Variable-Area Meter
Calibration of Flowmeters
Measurements of Fluid Velocities
Pressure Probes
Incompressible Fluids
Compressible Fluids
Total-Pressure Probes
Static-Pressure Probes
Direction-Sensing Probes
Thermal Anemometry
Doppler-Shift Measurements
Laser-Doppler Anemometry
Ultrasonic-Doppler Anemometry
Flow Visualization
Temperature Measurements
Introduction
Use of Thermal Expansion
Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
Calibration and Stem Correction
Bimetal Temperature-Sensing Elements
Pressure Thermometers
Thermoresistive Elements
Resistance Thermometers
Instrumentation for Resistance Thermometry
Thermistors
Thermocouples
Application Laws for Thermocouples
Thermocouple Materials and Construction
Values of the Thermocouple EMF
Measurement of Thermocouple EMF
Electronic Instruments
Thermopiles and Thermocouples Connected in Parallel
Semiconductor-Junction Temperature Sensors
The Linear Quartz Thermometer
Pyrometry
Radiation Pyrometry Theory
Total-Radiation Pyrometry
Spectral-Band Pyrometry
Infrared Pyrometry
Thermal Imaging
Other Methods of Temperature Indication
Temperature Measurement Errors
Errors Associated with Convection, Radiation, and Conduction
Measurement of Temperature in Rapidly Moving Gas
Temperature Element Response
Compensation for Temperature Element Response
Measurement of Heat Flux
Calibration of Temperature-Measuring Devices
Measurement of Motion
Introduction
Vibrometers and Accelerometers
Elementary Vibrometers and Vibration Detectors
Elementary Accelerometers
The Seismic Instrument
General Theory of the Seismic Instrument
The Vibration Pickup
Phase Shift in the Seismic Vibrometer
General Rule for Vibrometers
The Seismic Accelerometer
Phase Lag in the Accelerometer
Practical Design of Seismic Instruments
Calibration
Calibration of Vibrometers
Calibration of Accelerometers
Static Calibration
Steady-State Periodic Calibration
Response of the Seismic Instrument to Transients
Measurement of Velocity by the Laser Velocity Transducer
Vibration and Shock Testing
Vibrational Exciter Systems
Electromagnetic Systems
Mechanical-Type Exciters
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
Relative Merits and Limitations of Each System
Vibration Test Methods
The Brute-Force Method
The Resonance Method
Shock Testing
Shock Rigs
Air Gun Shock-Producing Devices
Spring-Loaded Test Rigs
A Hydraulic-Pneumatic Rig
Gravity Rigs
Relative Merits and Limitations of Each Shock Rig
Practical Shock Testing
Acoustical Measurements
Introduction
Characterization of Sound (Noise)
Basic Acoustical Parameters
Sound Pressure
Sound Pressure Level
Power, Intensity, and Power Level
Combination of Sound Pressure Levels
Attenuation with Distance
Psychoacoustic Relationships
Sound-Measuring Apparatus and Techniques
Microphones
The Sound Level Meter
Frequency Spectrum Analysis
The Discrete Fourier Transform
Applied Spectrum Analysis
Measurement and Interpretation of Industrial and Environmental Noise
Equivalent Sound Level, L[subscript eq]
Sound Exposure Level (SEL)
Sound Intensity Measurement
Notes on Some Practical Aspects of Sound Measurements
Calibration Methods
Final Remarks
Appendices
Standards and Conversion Equations
Theoretical Basis for Fourier Analysis
Number Systems
Some Useful Data
Stress and Strain Relationships
Statistical Tests of Least Squares Fits
Answers to Selected Problems
Index
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