| |

| |

Preface | |

| |

| |

| |

Fundamentals of Mechanical Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

The Process of Measurement: An Overview | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The Significance of Mechanical Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Fundamental Methods of Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Direct Comparison | |

| |

| |

| |

Using a Calibrated System | |

| |

| |

| |

The Generalized Measuring System | |

| |

| |

| |

First, or Sensor-Transducer, Stage | |

| |

| |

| |

Second, or Signal-Conditioning, Stage | |

| |

| |

| |

Third, or Recording-Readout, Stage | |

| |

| |

| |

Types of Input Quantities | |

| |

| |

| |

Time Dependence | |

| |

| |

| |

Analog and Digital Signals | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement Standards | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration | |

| |

| |

| |

Uncertainty: Accuracy of Results | |

| |

| |

| |

Reporting Results | |

| |

| |

| |

Laboratory Note or Technical Memo | |

| |

| |

| |

Full Report | |

| |

| |

| |

Technical Paper | |

| |

| |

| |

Final Remarks | |

| |

| |

| |

Standards and Dimensional Units of Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Historical Background of Measurement in the United States | |

| |

| |

| |

The SI System | |

| |

| |

| |

Establishment of the SI System | |

| |

| |

| |

Metric Conversion in the United States | |

| |

| |

| |

The Standard of Length | |

| |

| |

| |

Relationship of the Meter to the Inch | |

| |

| |

| |

The Standard of Mass | |

| |

| |

| |

Time and Frequency Standards | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature Standards | |

| |

| |

| |

Electrical Standards | |

| |

| |

| |

Conversions Between Systems of Units | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Assessing and Presenting Experimental Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Common Types of Error | |

| |

| |

| |

Classification of Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Terms Used in Rating Instrument Performance | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction to Uncertainty | |

| |

| |

| |

Estimation of Precision Uncertainty | |

| |

| |

| |

Sample versus Population | |

| |

| |

| |

Probability Distributions | |

| |

| |

| |

Theory Based on the Population | |

| |

| |

| |

Theory Based on the Sample | |

| |

| |

| |

An Example of Sampling | |

| |

| |

| |

Confidence Intervals for Large Samples | |

| |

| |

| |

Confidence Intervals for Small Samples | |

| |

| |

| |

Hypothesis Testing for a Single Mean for a Small Sample Size (n [lesser than or equal to] 30) | |

| |

| |

| |

Hypothesis Testing for a Single Mean for a Large Sample Size (n [greater than or equal to] 30) | |

| |

| |

| |

The t-Test Comparison of Sample Means | |

| |

| |

| |

The Chi-Square (x[superscript 2]) Distribution | |

| |

| |

| |

Goodness of Fit Based on the Gaussian Distribution | |

| |

| |

| |

Statistical Analysis by Computer | |

| |

| |

| |

Bias and Single-Sample Uncertainty | |

| |

| |

| |

Single-Sample Precision Uncertainty | |

| |

| |

| |

Propagation of Uncertainty | |

| |

| |

| |

Examples of Uncertainty Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Rating Resistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Expected Uncertainty for Flowmeter Calibration | |

| |

| |

| |

Minimizing Error in Designing Experiments | |

| |

| |

| |

Graphical Presentation of Data | |

| |

| |

| |

General Rules for Making Graphs | |

| |

| |

| |

Choosing Coordinates and Producing Straight Lines | |

| |

| |

| |

Line Fitting and the Method of Least Squares | |

| |

| |

| |

Least Squares for Line Fits | |

| |

| |

| |

Uncertainty in Line Fits | |

| |

| |

| |

Software for Curve Fitting | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

The Analog Measurand: Time-Dependent Characteristics | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple Harmonic Relations | |

| |

| |

| |

Circular and Cyclic Frequency | |

| |

| |

| |

Complex Relations | |

| |

| |

| |

Beat Frequency and Heterodyning | |

| |

| |

| |

Special Waveforms | |

| |

| |

| |

Nonperiodic or Transient Waveforms | |

| |

| |

| |

Amplitudes of Waveforms | |

| |

| |

| |

Frequency Spectrum | |

| |

| |

| |

Harmonic, or Fourier, Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

The Discrete Fourier Transform | |

| |

| |

| |

Frequencies in Discretely Sampled Signals: Aliasing and Frequency Resolution | |

| |

| |

| |

An Example of Discrete Fourier Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

The Response of Measuring Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Amplitude Response | |

| |

| |

| |

Frequency Response | |

| |

| |

| |

Phase Response | |

| |

| |

| |

Predicting Performance for Complex Waveforms | |

| |

| |

| |

Delay, Rise Time, and Slew Rate | |

| |

| |

| |

Response of Experimental System Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Simplified Physical Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Mechanical Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Mass | |

| |

| |

| |

Spring Force | |

| |

| |

| |

Damping | |

| |

| |

| |

An Example of a Simple Mechanical System | |

| |

| |

| |

The Importance of Damping | |

| |

| |

| |

Dynamic Characteristics of Simplified Mechanical Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Single-Degree-of-Freedom Spring-Mass-Damper Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

The Zero-Order System | |

| |

| |

| |

Characteristics of First-Order Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

The Step-Forced First-Order System | |

| |

| |

| |

The Harmonically Excited First-Order System | |

| |

| |

| |

Characteristics of Second-Order Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

The Step-Excited Second-Order System | |

| |

| |

| |

The Harmonically Excited Second-Order System | |

| |

| |

| |

General Periodic Forcing | |

| |

| |

| |

Electrical Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

First-Order Electrical System | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple Second-Order Electrical System | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration of System Response | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Sensors | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Loading of the Signal Source | |

| |

| |

| |

The Secondary Transducer | |

| |

| |

| |

Classification of First-Stage Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Variable-Resistance Transducer Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Sliding-Contact Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Potentiometer Resolution | |

| |

| |

| |

Potentiometer Linearity | |

| |

| |

| |

The Resistance Strain Gage | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermistors | |

| |

| |

| |

The Thermocouple | |

| |

| |

| |

Variable-Inductance Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple Self-Inductance Arrangements | |

| |

| |

| |

Two-Coil Mutual-Inductance Arrangements | |

| |

| |

| |

The Differential Transformer | |

| |

| |

| |

Variable-Reluctance Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Capacitive Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Piezoelectric Sensors | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductor Sensors | |

| |

| |

| |

Electrical Behavior of Semiconductors | |

| |

| |

| |

pn-Junctions | |

| |

| |

| |

Photodiodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Light-Detecting Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal Detectors | |

| |

| |

| |

Photon Detectors | |

| |

| |

| |

Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Hall-Effect Sensors | |

| |

| |

| |

Some Design-Related Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Manufacturing Tolerances | |

| |

| |

| |

Some Temperature-Related Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Methods for Limiting Temperature Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Signal Conditioning | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Advantages of Electrical Signal Conditioning | |

| |

| |

| |

Modulated and Unmodulated Signals | |

| |

| |

| |

Input Circuitry | |

| |

| |

| |

The Simple Current-Sensitive Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

The Ballast Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage-Dividing Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

The Voltage-Dividing Potentiometer | |

| |

| |

| |

Loading Error | |

| |

| |

| |

Use of End Resistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Small Changes in Transducer Resistance | |

| |

| |

| |

Resistance Bridges | |

| |

| |

| |

The Voltage-Sensitive Wheatstone Bridge | |

| |

| |

| |

The Current-Sensitive Wheatstone Bridge | |

| |

| |

| |

The Constant-Current Bridge | |

| |

| |

| |

The AC Resistance Bridge | |

| |

| |

| |

Compensation for Leads | |

| |

| |

| |

Adjusting Bridge Sensitivity | |

| |

| |

| |

Reactance or Impedance Bridges | |

| |

| |

| |

Resonant Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Undesirable Resonance Conditions | |

| |

| |

| |

Electronic Amplification or Gain | |

| |

| |

| |

Electronic Amplifiers | |

| |

| |

| |

Operational Amplifiers | |

| |

| |

| |

Typical Op-Amp Specifications | |

| |

| |

| |

Applications of the Op Amp | |

| |

| |

| |

Special Amplifier Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Instrumentation Amplifiers | |

| |

| |

| |

The Charge Amplifier | |

| |

| |

| |

Filters | |

| |

| |

| |

Some Filter Theory | |

| |

| |

| |

Active Filters | |

| |

| |

| |

Differentiators and Integrators | |

| |

| |

| |

Shielding and Grounding | |

| |

| |

| |

Shielding | |

| |

| |

| |

Grounding | |

| |

| |

| |

Component Coupling Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Techniques in Mechanical Measurements | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Why Use Digital Methods? | |

| |

| |

| |

Digitizing Mechanical Inputs | |

| |

| |

| |

Fundamental Digital Circuit Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Logic Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Combination of Logic Elements: The Flip-Flop | |

| |

| |

| |

IC Families | |

| |

| |

| |

IC Oscillators and Clock Signals | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Displays | |

| |

| |

| |

Number Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Binary Codes | |

| |

| |

| |

Binary-Coded Decimal | |

| |

| |

| |

Position Encoders and Gray Code | |

| |

| |

| |

Alphanumeric Codes | |

| |

| |

| |

Bar Codes | |

| |

| |

| |

Some Simple Digital Circuitry | |

| |

| |

| |

Events Counter | |

| |

| |

| |

Gating | |

| |

| |

| |

Frequency Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Wave Shaping | |

| |

| |

| |

Integrated-Circuit Counter and Frequency Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiplexing and Demultiplexing | |

| |

| |

| |

The Computer as a Measurement System | |

| |

| |

| |

The Microprocessor | |

| |

| |

| |

The Microcomputer | |

| |

| |

| |

Read-Only Memory (ROM) | |

| |

| |

| |

Random Access Memory (RAM) | |

| |

| |

| |

Input and Output Ports (I/O Ports) | |

| |

| |

| |

External Buses | |

| |

| |

| |

Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion | |

| |

| |

| |

A Digital-to-Analog Converter | |

| |

| |

| |

An Analog-to-Digital Converter | |

| |

| |

| |

Analog-to-Digital Conversion Considerations | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Signal Processing | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Images | |

| |

| |

| |

Getting It All Together | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Readout and Data Processing | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

The Electronic Counter | |

| |

| |

| |

Event Counter | |

| |

| |

| |

Time-Interval Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Events per Unit Time (EPUT) Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Count Error | |

| |

| |

| |

Analog Electric Meter Indicators | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltmeter Sensitivity | |

| |

| |

| |

The Current Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

AC Meters | |

| |

| |

| |

The Multimeter and Resistance Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Meters with Electronic Amplification | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital-Readout Multimeters | |

| |

| |

| |

The Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) | |

| |

| |

| |

Oscilloscope Amplifiers | |

| |

| |

| |

Sawtooth Oscillator or Time-Base Generator | |

| |

| |

| |

Synchronization or Triggering | |

| |

| |

| |

Additional CRO Features | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple Trace | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnification and Delayed Sweep | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Storage Oscilloscopes | |

| |

| |

| |

Single-Ended and Differential Inputs | |

| |

| |

| |

XY-Plotters | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Waveform Recorders | |

| |

| |

| |

The Spectrum Analyzer | |

| |

| |

| |

LabVIEW | |

| |

| |

| |

Applied Mechanical Measurements | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Count, Events per Unit Time, Time Interval, and Frequency | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Use of Counters | |

| |

| |

| |

Electronic Counters | |

| |

| |

| |

EPUT Meters | |

| |

| |

| |

Time-Interval Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Stroboscopy and High-Speed Imaging | |

| |

| |

| |

The Stroboscope | |

| |

| |

| |

High-Speed Imaging | |

| |

| |

| |

Frequency Standards | |

| |

| |

| |

Global Positioning System Signals | |

| |

| |

| |

Radio Time and Frequency Transmission | |

| |

| |

| |

Quartz-Crystal Oscillators | |

| |

| |

| |

Complex-Wave Oscillators and Function Generators | |

| |

| |

| |

Lissajous Figures for Finding Frequency and Phase Relations | |

| |

| |

| |

Heterodyne and Phase-Lock Measurements of Frequency | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Rotary Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Displacement and Dimensional Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

A Problem in Dimensional Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Gage Blocks | |

| |

| |

| |

Assembling Gage-Block Stacks | |

| |

| |

| |

Surface Plates | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Use of Comparators | |

| |

| |

| |

Monochromatic Light | |

| |

| |

| |

The Interferometer | |

| |

| |

| |

Measuring Microscopes | |

| |

| |

| |

Fixed-Scale Microscopes | |

| |

| |

| |

Filar Microscopes | |

| |

| |

| |

Traveling and Traveling-Stage Microscopes | |

| |

| |

| |

The Draw-Tube Microscope | |

| |

| |

| |

Focusing | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital Microscopes | |

| |

| |

| |

Whole-Field Displacement Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Displacement Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

The Differential Transformer or LVDT | |

| |

| |

| |

Input Power | |

| |

| |

| |

Advantages of the LVDT | |

| |

| |

| |

Surface Roughness | |

| |

| |

| |

Strain and Stress: Measurement and Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Strain Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

The Electrical Resistance Strain Gage | |

| |

| |

| |

The Metallic Resistance Strain Gage | |

| |

| |

| |

Selection and Installation Factors for Bonded Metallic Strain Gages | |

| |

| |

| |

Circuitry for the Metallic Strain Gage | |

| |

| |

| |

The Strain-Gage Ballast Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

The Strain-Gage Bridge Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Bridges with Two and Four Arms Sensitive to Strain | |

| |

| |

| |

The Bridge Constant | |

| |

| |

| |

Lead-Wire Error | |

| |

| |

| |

The Simple Constant-Current Strain-Gage Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature Compensation | |

| |

| |

| |

The Adjacent-Arm Compensating Gage | |

| |

| |

| |

Self-Temperature Compensation | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration | |

| |

| |

| |

Commercially Available Strain-Measuring Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

The Basic Indicator | |

| |

| |

| |

Strain-Gage Switching | |

| |

| |

| |

Use of Strain Gages on Rotating Shafts | |

| |

| |

| |

Stress-Strain Relationships | |

| |

| |

| |

The Simple Uniaxial Stress Situation | |

| |

| |

| |

The Biaxial Stress Situation | |

| |

| |

| |

Gage Orientation and Interpretation of Results | |

| |

| |

| |

Gages Connected in Series | |

| |

| |

| |

Special Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Cross Sensitivity | |

| |

| |

| |

Plastic Strains and the Postyield Gage | |

| |

| |

| |

Fatigue Applications of Resistance Strain Gages | |

| |

| |

| |

Cryogenic Temperature Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

High-Temperature Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Creep | |

| |

| |

| |

Residual Stress Determination | |

| |

| |

| |

Final Remarks | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Force and Torque | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Measuring Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

Mechanical Weighing Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

The Analytical Balance | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple-Lever Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

The Pendulum Force-Measuring Mechanism | |

| |

| |

| |

Elastic Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration Adjustment | |

| |

| |

| |

The Proving Ring | |

| |

| |

| |

Strain-Gage Load Cells | |

| |

| |

| |

Piezoelectric Load Cells | |

| |

| |

| |

Ballistic Weighing | |

| |

| |

| |

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Torque Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Mechanical and Hydraulic Dynamometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric Dynamometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Transmission Dynamometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Pressure | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Static and Dynamic Pressures in Fluids | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure-Measuring Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Manometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Bourdon-Tube Gages | |

| |

| |

| |

Elastic Diaphragms | |

| |

| |

| |

Flat Metal Diaphragms | |

| |

| |

| |

Corrugated Metal Diaphragms | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductor Diaphragms | |

| |

| |

| |

Additional Pressure Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Strain Gages and Flat Diaphragms | |

| |

| |

| |

Inductive Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Piezoelectric Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Capacitative Transducers | |

| |

| |

| |

Strain-Gage Pressure Cells | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of High Pressures | |

| |

| |

| |

Electrical Resistance Pressure Gages | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Low Pressures | |

| |

| |

| |

The McLeod Gage | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal Conductivity Gages | |

| |

| |

| |

Ionization Gages | |

| |

| |

| |

Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure-Measuring Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Gas-Filled Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Liquid-Filled Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

Periodic Pressure Sources | |

| |

| |

| |

Aperiodic Pressure Sources | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Fluid Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Flow Characteristics | |

| |

| |

| |

Obstruction Meters | |

| |

| |

| |

Obstruction Meters for Incompressible Flow | |

| |

| |

| |

Venturi Tube Characteristics | |

| |

| |

| |

Flow-Nozzle Characteristics | |

| |

| |

| |

Orifice Characteristics | |

| |

| |

| |

Relative Merits of the Venturi, Flow Nozzle, and Orifice | |

| |

| |

| |

Obstruction Meters for Compressible Fluids | |

| |

| |

| |

Choked Flow and the Critical Flow Venturi Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Additional Flowmeters | |

| |

| |

| |

Turbine Meters | |

| |

| |

| |

Electromagnetic Flowmeters | |

| |

| |

| |

Coriolis Flowmeters | |

| |

| |

| |

Vortex Shedding Flowmeters | |

| |

| |

| |

Ultrasonic Flowmeters | |

| |

| |

| |

Positive Displacement Flowmeters | |

| |

| |

| |

The Variable-Area Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration of Flowmeters | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurements of Fluid Velocities | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure Probes | |

| |

| |

| |

Incompressible Fluids | |

| |

| |

| |

Compressible Fluids | |

| |

| |

| |

Total-Pressure Probes | |

| |

| |

| |

Static-Pressure Probes | |

| |

| |

| |

Direction-Sensing Probes | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal Anemometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Doppler-Shift Measurements | |

| |

| |

| |

Laser-Doppler Anemometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Ultrasonic-Doppler Anemometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Flow Visualization | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature Measurements | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Use of Thermal Expansion | |

| |

| |

| |

Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration and Stem Correction | |

| |

| |

| |

Bimetal Temperature-Sensing Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure Thermometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermoresistive Elements | |

| |

| |

| |

Resistance Thermometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Instrumentation for Resistance Thermometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermocouples | |

| |

| |

| |

Application Laws for Thermocouples | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermocouple Materials and Construction | |

| |

| |

| |

Values of the Thermocouple EMF | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Thermocouple EMF | |

| |

| |

| |

Electronic Instruments | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermopiles and Thermocouples Connected in Parallel | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductor-Junction Temperature Sensors | |

| |

| |

| |

The Linear Quartz Thermometer | |

| |

| |

| |

Pyrometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Radiation Pyrometry Theory | |

| |

| |

| |

Total-Radiation Pyrometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Spectral-Band Pyrometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Infrared Pyrometry | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal Imaging | |

| |

| |

| |

Other Methods of Temperature Indication | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature Measurement Errors | |

| |

| |

| |

Errors Associated with Convection, Radiation, and Conduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Temperature in Rapidly Moving Gas | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature Element Response | |

| |

| |

| |

Compensation for Temperature Element Response | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Heat Flux | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration of Temperature-Measuring Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Vibrometers and Accelerometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Elementary Vibrometers and Vibration Detectors | |

| |

| |

| |

Elementary Accelerometers | |

| |

| |

| |

The Seismic Instrument | |

| |

| |

| |

General Theory of the Seismic Instrument | |

| |

| |

| |

The Vibration Pickup | |

| |

| |

| |

Phase Shift in the Seismic Vibrometer | |

| |

| |

| |

General Rule for Vibrometers | |

| |

| |

| |

The Seismic Accelerometer | |

| |

| |

| |

Phase Lag in the Accelerometer | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Design of Seismic Instruments | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration of Vibrometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration of Accelerometers | |

| |

| |

| |

Static Calibration | |

| |

| |

| |

Steady-State Periodic Calibration | |

| |

| |

| |

Response of the Seismic Instrument to Transients | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of Velocity by the Laser Velocity Transducer | |

| |

| |

| |

Vibration and Shock Testing | |

| |

| |

| |

Vibrational Exciter Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Electromagnetic Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Mechanical-Type Exciters | |

| |

| |

| |

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Relative Merits and Limitations of Each System | |

| |

| |

| |

Vibration Test Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

The Brute-Force Method | |

| |

| |

| |

The Resonance Method | |

| |

| |

| |

Shock Testing | |

| |

| |

| |

Shock Rigs | |

| |

| |

| |

Air Gun Shock-Producing Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Spring-Loaded Test Rigs | |

| |

| |

| |

A Hydraulic-Pneumatic Rig | |

| |

| |

| |

Gravity Rigs | |

| |

| |

| |

Relative Merits and Limitations of Each Shock Rig | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Shock Testing | |

| |

| |

| |

Acoustical Measurements | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Characterization of Sound (Noise) | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Acoustical Parameters | |

| |

| |

| |

Sound Pressure | |

| |

| |

| |

Sound Pressure Level | |

| |

| |

| |

Power, Intensity, and Power Level | |

| |

| |

| |

Combination of Sound Pressure Levels | |

| |

| |

| |

Attenuation with Distance | |

| |

| |

| |

Psychoacoustic Relationships | |

| |

| |

| |

Sound-Measuring Apparatus and Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

Microphones | |

| |

| |

| |

The Sound Level Meter | |

| |

| |

| |

Frequency Spectrum Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

The Discrete Fourier Transform | |

| |

| |

| |

Applied Spectrum Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement and Interpretation of Industrial and Environmental Noise | |

| |

| |

| |

Equivalent Sound Level, L[subscript eq] | |

| |

| |

| |

Sound Exposure Level (SEL) | |

| |

| |

| |

Sound Intensity Measurement | |

| |

| |

| |

Notes on Some Practical Aspects of Sound Measurements | |

| |

| |

| |

Calibration Methods | |

| |

| |

| |

Final Remarks | |

| |

| |

| |

Appendices | |

| |

| |

| |

Standards and Conversion Equations | |

| |

| |

| |

Theoretical Basis for Fourier Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Number Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Some Useful Data | |

| |

| |

| |

Stress and Strain Relationships | |

| |

| |

| |

Statistical Tests of Least Squares Fits | |

| |

| |

Answers to Selected Problems | |

| |

| |

Index | |