Contemporary Policy Analysis

ISBN-10: 0199730962
ISBN-13: 9780199730964
Edition: 2012
Authors: Michael Mintrom
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Book details

List price: $81.95
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/1/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.452
Language: English

Preface
Introduction
The Nature of Policy Analysis
The Rise of Policy Analysis
The Purpose and Organization of this Book
Conclusion
Exercises
Further Reading
Overview of Policy Analysis
What Policy Analysts Do
The Social Function of Policy Analysis
Where Policy Analysts Are Employed
How Policy Analysts Contribute to Public Decision Making
Common Competencies and Attributes of Successful Policy Analysts
Why Being a Policy Analyst Is an Appealing Career Choice
Conclusion
Exercises
Invite a Guest to Class
Further Reading
What Governments Do
The Role of Government in Society
Achieving Cooperation
A Review of Government Policy Actions
Market Making
Taxes
Subsidies
Regulation
Direct Service Supply
Funding and Contracting
Partnering and Facilitating
Information and Social Marketing
Frameworks and Strategies
Summary
Increasing Complexity
Looking Ahead
Exercises
Further Reading
Objectives of Government Policy Actions
Discussing Government Policy Action
Promoting Human Flourishing
Promoting Effective Institutions
Promoting Efficiency
Promoting Sustainability
Advancing Human Rights
Promoting Social Equity
Problem Definition and Agenda Setting
Working with Objectives, Goals, and Public Policies
Conclusion
Exercises
Further Reading
Managing Policy Projects
The Discipline of Project Management
Project Initiation
Project Planning
Project Execution and Control
Project Closure
Developing a Policy Project Proposal
A Project Summary
A List of Project Objectives
A List of Project Deliverables
A Project Task List
A Preliminary Time Budget
A Project Timeline
Biographical Statements
A Project Budget
A Risk Assessment
Transitioning to Project Execution and Control
Constructing Progress Reports
Managing Your Time
Make "To Do" Lists
Prioritize among Activities
Batch Routine Tasks
Think about Opportunity Costs
Think in Marginalist Terms
Take Care of Relations with Others
Manage Your Downtime
Working with Policy Literature
Conclusion
Exercises
The Class Project
Further Reading
Presenting Policy Advice
Clarifying Audience Needs
Structuring a Policy Report
Abstract or Executive Summary
Table of Contents
Introduction
Background
Analytical Strategy
Analysis and Findings
Discussion
Policy Recommendations
Conclusion
Other Items
Effective Presentation of Evidence
Reflecting on the Contribution
The Sign-Off
Developing Presentations and Oral Briefings
The Importance of Creativity
Conclusion
Exercises
Invite a Guest to Class
Further Reading
Doing Ethical Policy Analysis
Policy Analysis and Ethical Practice
Ethical Principles for Policy Analysts
Integrity
Competence
Responsibility
Respect
Concern
Doing Ethical Policy Analysis
Ethical Problem Definition
Ethical Construction of Alternatives
Ethical Selection of Criteria
Ethical Prediction of Outcomes
Ethical Analysis of Trade-Offs
Ethical Reporting Practices
Conclusion
Exercises
Invite a Guest to Class
Further Reading
ANalytical Strategies
Introduction to the Analytical Strategies
Policy Analysts in the Policy-Making Process
The Analytical Strategy Chapters
Analysis of Markets
Analysis of Market Failure
Analysis of Government Failure
Comparative Institutional Analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Gender Analysis
Race Analysis
Implementation Analysis
Use of Applied Examples
The Analytical Strategies and General Steps in Policy Analysis
When to Apply Each Analytical Strategy
Conclusion
Analysis of Markets
An Introduction to Market Analysis
Consumer Choice and the Demand Side of the Market
Firm Behavior and the Supply Side of the Market
Equilibrium in Markets
Comparative Static Equilibrium Analysis
Price Signaling and Interconnected Markets
Assumptions of the Market Model Revisited
Using Market Analysis as an Analytical Framework
Steps in Market Analysis
Identify the phenomenon of interest
Consider the behavior of consumers and producers
Think in terms of comparative statics equilibrium analysis
Collect and analyze the relevant information
Draw implications for government action
An Applied Example
Identify the phenomenon of interest
Consider the behavior of consumers and producers
Think in terms of comparative statics equilibrium analysis
Collect and analyze the relevant information
Draw implications for government action
Advice for Analytical Practice
Analysis of Markets and Other Analytical Strategies
Chapter Content ReviewA Self-Test
Exercises
The Policy Research Seminar
Further Reading
Analysis of Market Failure
An Overview of Market Failure
Information Asymmetries
Rectifying Information Asymmetries
Positive Externalities
Rectifying Positive Externalities
Negative Externalities
Rectifying Negative Externalitie
Public GoodsCommon Pool Resources
Rectifying Problems with Common Pool Resources
Pure Public GoodsThe Need for Collective Provision
Arranging Collective Provision
Natural Monopolies and How They Can Be Managed
Social Equity Concerns and How They Can Be Addressed
Using Market Failure as an Analytical Framework
Steps in the Analysis of Market Failure
Specify the good or service of interest
Identify the consumers and producers and the location of their transactions
Using the tools of market analysis, construct a simple model of how an efficient market would allocate this good or service
State the market failure that you believe is present in this context
Analyze the actions of consumers and producers and how those actions contribute to market failure
Estimate the financial implications of the market failure, and note any other salient impacts
Identify efforts made by consumers, producers, and any other nongovernmental actors to address the market failure
Suggest how government use of policy instruments could potentially address the market failure.An Applied Example
Specify the good or service of interest
Identify the consumers and producers and the location of their transactions
Using the tools of market analysis, construct a simple model of how an efficient market would allocate this good or service
State the market failure that you believe is present in this context
Analyze the actions of consumers and producers and how those actions contribute to market failure
Estimate the financial implications of the market failure and note any other salient impacts
Identify efforts made by consumers, producers, and any other nongovernmental actors to address the market failure
Suggest how government use of policy instruments could potentially address the market failure
Advice for Analytical Practice
Market Failure and Other Analytical Strategies
Exercises
The Policy Research Seminar
Further Reading
Analysis of Government Failure
An Overview of Government Failure and Its Analysis
Government and Coordination Problems
Political Control
Provider Capture
Perverse Incentives
Goal Displacement
Institutional Inertia
Using Government Failure as an Analytical Framework
Steps in the Analysis of Government Failure
Define the area of policy interest
Determine the objectives of government action
Note the nature of information and coordination problems that can arise through reliance on decentralized, private decision making
Contrast the current or favored government actions with possible alternatives
Identify opportunities for undue political interference in program management
Identify opportunities for provider capture
Identify perverse incentives and unintended outcomes
Propose changes in policy design to reduce observed government failure
Consider ways that reliance on government action could be reduced over time An Applied Example
An Applied Example
Define the area of policy interest
Determine the objectives of government action
Note the nature of information and coordination problems that can arise through reliance on decentralized, private decision making
Contrast the current or favored government actions with possible alternatives
Identify opportunities for undue political interference in program management
Identify opportunities for provider capture
Identify perverse incentives and unintended outcomes
Propose changes in policy design to reduce observed government failure
Consider ways that reliance on government action could be reduced over time
Advice for Analytical Practice
Analysis of Government Failure and Other Analytical Strategies
Exercises
The Policy Research Seminar
Further Reading
Comparative Institutional Analysis
An Overview of Comparative Institutional Analysis
Using Comparative Institutional Analysis as an Analytical Framework
Steps in Comparative Institutional Analysis
Select and refine the analytical questions
Develop a research design, and select cases
Collect and analyze the relevant information
Isolate the relationships between institutional choice and observed outcomes
Present your findings, and make recommendations
An Applied Example
Select and refine the analytical questions
Develop a research design, and select cases
Collect and analyze the relevant information
Isolate the relationships between institutional choice and observed outcomes
Present your findings, and make recommendations
Advice for Analytical Practice
Comparative Institutional Analysis and Other Analytical Strategies
Exercises
Invite a Guest to Class
The Class Project
The Policy Research Seminar
Further Reading
Cost-Benefit Analysis
An Overview of Cost-Benefit Analysis
Using Cost-Benefit Analysis as an Analytical Framework
Steps in Cost-Benefit Analysis
Define the scope of the study
Identify all negative and positive effects of the policy
Estimate the monetary costs and benefits of the policy
Take account of opportunity costs
Calculate net present value
Reflect on the value of human life and quality-of-life issues
Report study assumptions and limitations
Present results using several scenarios
An Applied Example
Define the scope of the study
Identify all negative and positive effects of the policy
Estimate the monetary costs and benefits of the policy
Take account of opportunity costs
Calculate net present value
Reflect on the value of human life and quality-of-life issues
Report study assumptions and limitations
Present results using several scenarios
Advice for Analytical Practice
Cost-Benefit Analysis and Other Analytical Strategies
Exercises
The Class Project
The Policy Research Seminar
Further Reading
Gender Analysis
Gender and Race Analysis
Policy Motives
Policy Actions
An Overview of Gender Analysis
Analysis of Aggregate Statistics
Process Tracing
Tests for Discriminatory Practices
Using Gender Analysis as an Analytical Framework
Gender Analysis and Problem Definition
Gender Analysis and Construction of Alternatives
Gender Analysis and Selection of Criteria
Gender Analysis and Prediction of Outcomes
Reporting Gender Analysis
Steps in Gender Analysis
Select a specific context in which women appear significantly disadvantaged relative to men
Assemble evidence allowing you to illustrate differences in men's and women's experiences in similar contexts
Develop a process-tracing method to show how specific institutional arrangements, social practices, or decision-making are discriminatory
Highlight discriminatory policies or practices, and show how they disadvantage women compared with men
Propose policy actions to rectify the discrimination and disadvantage
Address the view that gains for women spell losses for men
An Applied Example
Select a specific context in which women appear significantly disadvantaged relative to men
Assemble evidence allowing you to illustrate differences in men's and women's experiences in similar contexts
Develop a process-tracing method to show how specific institutional arrangements, social practices, or decision making are discriminatory
Highlight discriminatory policies or practices, and show how they disadvantage women compared with men
Propose policy actions to rectify the discrimination and disadvantage
Address the view that gains for women spell losses for men
Advice for Analytical Practice
Gender Analysis and Other Analytical Strategies
Exercises
The Policy Research Seminar
Further Reading
Race Analysis
An Overview of Race Analysis
Testing for Statistical Discrimination versus Racial Prejudice
Confronting Misattribution Problems
Tracing Complex Processes
Using Race Analysis as an Analytical Strategy
Race Analysis and Problem Definition
Race Analysis and Construction of Alternatives
Race Analysis and Selection of Criteria
Race Analysis and Prediction of Outcomes
Reporting Race Analysis
Steps in Race Analysis
Select a specific context in which significant racial disparities are known or expected to exist
Assemble evidence allowing you to confirm the existence of racial disparities
Develop a process-tracing method to show how specific institutional arrangements, social practices, or decision making are discriminatory
Highlight discriminatory policies or practices, and show how they disadvantage specific racial groups
Propose policy actions to rectify the discrimination and disadvantage
Scrutinize the proposed policy actions to avoid unintended negative effects
Estimate the gains for all groups that would result from effective policy change
An Applied Example
Select a specific context in which significant racial disparities are known or expected to exist
Assemble evidence allowing you to confirm the existence of racial disparities
Develop a process-tracing method to show how specific institutional arrangements, social practices, or decision making are discriminatory
Highlight discriminatory policies or practices, and show how they disadvantage specific racial groups
Propose policy actions to rectify the discrimination and disadvantage
Scrutinize the proposed policy actions to avoid unintended negative effects
Estimate the gains for all groups that would result from effective policy change
Advice for Analytical Practice
Race Analysis and Other Analytical Strategies
Exercises
Further Reading
Implementation Analysis
An Overview of Implementation Analysis
Envisioning Policy Success
Identifying Tasks and Task Dependencies
Identifying Threats to Successful Implementation
Closing Knowing-Doing Gaps
Planning for Evaluation
Using Implementation Analysis as an Analytical Framework
Steps in Implementation Analysis
Identify the overall purpose of the new policy, where it will be implemented, and how success has been defined
Identify who will be responsible for policy implementation and the behavioral changes that implementation is expected to produce
Specify the institutional, organizational, and procedural changes required to support the new policy
Treating implementation as a project, note the key tasks required to establish the new policy context
Identify any significant threats to successful implementation and how they can be addressed
Consider how institutional inertia might hinder change and how it can be overcome
Ensure provisions have been made for evaluation of the new policy and associated programs
An Applied Example
Identify the overall purpose of the new policy, where it will be implemented, and how success has been defined
Identify who will be responsible for policy implementation and the behavioral changes that implementation is expected to produce
Specify the institutional, organizational, and procedural changes required to support the new policy
Treating implementation as a project, note the key tasks required to establish the new policy context
Identify any significant threats to successful implementation and how they can be addressed
Consider how institutional inertia might hinder change and how it can be overcome
Ensure provisions have been made for evaluation of the new policy and associated
Advice for Analytical Practice
Implementation Analysis and Other Analytical Strategies
Exercises
Invite a Guest to Class
The Class Project
The Policy Research Seminar
Further Reading
Improving Your Practice
Developing as a Policy Analyst and Advisor
The Power of Positive Thinking
Developing Openness and Creativity
Skill Building Through Deliberate Practice
Becoming a Change Leader
Further Reading
Bibliography
Index

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