Evolution and Medicine

ISBN-10: 0199661723

ISBN-13: 9780199661725

Edition: 2013

Authors: Robert Perlman
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Description: Physicians and scientists are increasingly recognising the importance of an evolutionary perspective in studying the aetiology, prevention, and treatment of human disease. The increasing prominence of genetics in medicine is further adding to the interest in evolutionary medicine. Evolution and Medicine clearly lays out the principles of evolutionary medicine in a way that will appeal to clinicians, medical students, and biomedical research scientists. These principles include variation and selection, the genetic basis of evolutionary change, life history theory and the evolutionary biology of aging, developmental plasticity, host-pathogen coevolution, and the effects of environmental change (which, for humans, is largely due to man-made, cultural change). The book intersperses presentations of evolutionary concepts with discussions of diseases that illustrate the application of these concepts, and clearly show the relevance of evolutionary biology to medical education, research, and practice.This accessible text is written for physicians, biomedical scientists, and both premedical and medical students. It is also ideally placed to cater for an anticipated expansion in seminars and in undergraduate and continuing medical education courses on this topic.

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Book details

Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 5/30/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 200
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.924
Language: English

Abbreviations
Evolution and medicine
Introduction
The theory of evolution by natural selection
The different conceptual bases of medicine and evolutionary biology
Why our evolutionary heritage has left us vulnerable to disease
Human demography, history, and disease
Introduction
Population growth: birth rates and death rates
Population growth in age-structured populations: fertility rates
Age-specific death rates
History of human population growth
The future of the human population
Evolutionary genetics
Introduction
Other evolutionary processes: mutation, genetic drift, and migration
Genetic dominance
Heterozygote advantage
Pleiotropy and epistasis
Linkage and hitchhiking
Frequency dependent selection
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression
Population structure and mating patterns
Genetic consequences of human evolutionary history
Natural selection in human populations
Cystic fibrosis
Introduction
CFTR, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
Genotypic diversity and phenotypic heterogeneity in cystic fibrosis
Relationship between genotype and phenotype
Evolution of mutant CFTR alleles
- Life history tradeoffs and the evolutionary biology of aging
Introduction
The causes of death change through the life cycle
What is aging?
The life history theory of aging
-5 Genetic causes of aging
Proximate causes of aging
Somatic repair and the depletion of physiological capital
Plasticity in rates of aging
Developmental origins of health and disease
Cancer
Introduction
Cancer as a disease of aging
Regulation of cell growth and replication
Selection for cells that escape normal growth controls
Cancer progression
Ecology of cancers
Anti-cancer defenses
Carcinogenesis and cancer prevention
Host-pathogen coevolution
Introduction
-2 Epidemiology of pathogen transmission
Virulence and transmissibility
Host-pathogen coevolution: hosts evolve in ways that minimize the fitness cost of pathogens
Host-pathogen coevolution: pathogens evolve in ways that optimize their fitness
Myxomatosis: a case study of host-pathogen coevolution
Complexities in host-pathogen interactions
Antibiotic resistance: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Manifestations of disease
Sexually transmitted diseases
Introduction
The epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases
Evolutionary responses of hosts to sexually transmitted pathogens
Syphilis
HIV/AIDS
Malaria
Introduction
The life history of Plasmodium falciparum
The natural history of malaria infections
R<sub>0</sub>, the basic reproductive number of P. falciparum
Virulence of P. falciparum
Evolution of P. falciparum and other malaria parasites
Mosquitoes that transmit P. falciparum
Effects of malaria on human evolution
The future of malaria
Gene-culture coevolution: lactase persistence
Introduction
Milk consumption
A brief history of animal domestication and dairying
The evolution of lactose synthesis and metabolism
Lactase restriction and lactase persistence
The coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying
Man-made diseases
Introduction
Diet, obesity, and diabetes
Salt intake and hypertension
Elimination of old pathogens: the hygiene hypothesis
Hierarchical societies and socioeconomic disparities in health
Reducing the burden of man-made diseases
Glossary
References
Index
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