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Criminal Justice Management Theory and Practice in Justice-Centered Organizations

ISBN-10: 0195337611
ISBN-13: 9780195337617
Edition: 2008
List price: $54.95
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Description: Criminal justice students and practitioners in criminal justice agencies know firsthand the value of effective management; they understand the vital need to develop organizations that meet the expectations of their community members as well as those  More...

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Book details

List price: $54.95
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/19/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.320
Language: English

Criminal justice students and practitioners in criminal justice agencies know firsthand the value of effective management; they understand the vital need to develop organizations that meet the expectations of their community members as well as those of their workers. With an innovative, student-friendly approach, Criminal Justice Management: Theory and Practice in Justice-Centered Organizations examines the complex subject of justice-centered agencies. Authors Mary K. Stohr and Peter A. Collins interweave their comprehensive research with humor and personal anecdotes to make the study of criminal justice management accessible--and interesting--to students. Chapter exercises and study questions provide a springboard for lively class discussion, encouraging students to discover relevant applications for these provocative topics. Through its dedicated pedagogy, this text challenges readers to: * Initiate human relations management practices * Provide support for the professional development of staff * Use proactive, collaborative, and shared responsibility forms of leadership * Develop and maintain strong ethical practices * Implement evidence-based best practices in agency programming * Build strong bridges within an engaged and informed community With an emphasis on putting theory into practice, Criminal Justice Management is an invaluable resource for the development of efficient, dynamic, and resourceful justice-centered agencies.

Mary K. Stohr is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Washington State University. She received a Ph.D. (1990) in political science, with specializations in criminal justice and public administration, from Washington State University. Professor Stohr has published over 80 academic works in the areas of correctional organizations and operation, correctional personnel, inmate needs and assessment, program evaluation, gender, and victimization. Her books, with others, include The American Prison (with Cullen and Jonson); Correctional Assessment, Casework and Counseling (with Walsh); Corrections: A Text Reader (with Walsh and Hemmens); Criminal Justice Management: Theory and Practice in Justice Centered Organizations (with Collins); and The Prison Experience (with Hemmens). She is the Executive Director of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, received the Founders Award from ACJS in 2009, and is a Co-Founder of the Corrections Section of ACJS.

Foreword
Preface
Criminal Justice Management: The Big, the Bad, and the Beautiful
Introduction: Scope and Purpose of the Book
Some Defining Issues in Criminal Justice: Law Enforcement, Courts, and Corrections
Police and Sheriff's Departments
Duties, Mission, and Roles of Law Enforcement
Organizational Structure
Clientele
Staff Characteristics
Location/Jurisdiction
Public Institutions
Adult and Juvenile Courts
Organizational Structure, the Work Group and Clientele
Courtroom Work Group
Clientele
The Law, Levels
Staffing
Location
Jails/Detention and Prisons/Juvenile Facilities: How They Differ
Conviction and Sentence Status
Time Incarcerated
Local vs. State Operation
Size of the Facility
Security Level of the Facility
Age and Gender Separation
Location
Jails and Prisons: How They Are Alike
Community Corrections or Probation and Parole: How They Are Different and Similar
Time Sequencing
Types of Offenders
Rules
Similar Characteristics of Staff and Organizational Structure
Conclusions: The Unique Management Milieu of Criminal Justice Agencies
Discussion Questions
Web Link
References
Surveying the Landscape of Criminal Justice Management
Introduction: The Ties That Bind
Common Terms Defined
Organization, Justice, Bureaucracy, Management, and Formal and Informal Goals and Organizations
Street-Level Bureaucrats and Discretion
Ethics
No Organization is an Island: Open and Closed Organizations
Democratic Accountability and Neutral Competence: The Value-Added Difference in Governmental Operation
Democratic Accountability
Neutral Competency
Reconciling Democratic Accountability and Neutral Competence in Government Service
Government Service is Different
Conclusions: Why It Is Important Not to Tell Jokes About Bureaucrats
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Web Links
References
Managing Trouble-Deviance, Abuse of Force and Sexual/Gender Harassment-Using Ethics
Introduction
Public Distrust
Deviance Explained
Corruption for Individual Gain
Official Deviance
Noble Cause
Two Insidious Types of Abuse
Excessive Use of Force
Sexual and Gender Harassment
Ethics Defined and Discussed
The Origin of Ethics
A Warning Sign: Too Much Focus on Ends Over Means
The War on Terror Presents the Perfect Conditions for Ethical Abuse
The Ethical Remedy to Alleviate the Degree of Abuse, Deviance, Corruption, and Harassment
Conclusions
Exercise: Student's Ethics Quiz
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Notes
References
The Ethics Instrument Version for Jails
Service Values, the Administrative State, and Management Theory in Perspective
Introduction: A Bit of Background
The Administrative State
Management Theories
Traditional Theories of Management
Criticisms of the Traditional Theory of Management
Systems Theory
Human Relations or Human Resource Theories
The Hawthorne Experiments
The Hierarchy of Needs
Theories X and Y
Other Human Relations-Related Theories
Criticisms of Early Human Relations Theories of Management
Modern Human Relations Theories and Techniques: Theory Z, TQM, MBO and Learning Organizations
Conclusions: The Application of Management Theories to Criminal Justice Agencies
Exercise: Taylor's Pig Iron Story
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Note
References
Communications: What You Say and Do is What They Think You Mean
Introduction: The Message and the Medium
The Purpose of Communication
Communication Within and Across Organizational Boundaries, and Complaints
Communication Within and Between Groups
Communication Across Organizational Boundaries
Barriers to Effective Communication
Improving Communications
An Additional Prescription for Communication Enhancement
Training
Teaming
Listening
Newsletters
Grievance Procedures and Whistleblowing Programs
Technology
Inside and Outside Research
Organizational Change
Conclusions
Exercise: The Space Invader
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Web Link
References
Socialization, Roles, and Power Issues
Introduction: What is My Job and How Do I Do It?
Socialization
Anticipatory Socialization
Formal Socialization
Informal Socialization
The Criminal Justice Role
Role Conflict: The Service vs. Security/Serve vs. Protect Dichotomies
Power
Conclusions
Exercise: The Role-Ordering People About
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References
The Correctional Role Instrument
Leadership and Criminal Justice Organizations
Introduction: After You've Worked for "Bad" Leaders, You Begin to Appreciate the Importance of "Good" Leadership
Leadership Defined
Are Leaders Born and/or Made?
Leadership Theories
Change and Maintenance Leadership to Fit the Situation
Leadership Styles vs. Techniques
The Responsibilities of Leadership
Teaming as a Means of Sharing Leadership Responsibilities
The Relative Satisfaction and Status of Criminal Justice Leaders/Managers and Supervisors
Criminal Justice Leaders: Success, Failure, and the Dangers of Groupthink
Organizational and Leader Success and Measurement
Two Leadership Pitfalls: Organizational Decline and Failure and Groupthink
Organizational Decline and Failure
Groupthink
Conclusions
Exercise: The American (Leadership) Idols
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Note
References
Personnel Processes and Practices
Introduction: You've Got to Protect Your Investment!
Selection
Job-Valid Qualifications
Legal Disqualifiers
Cost
Typical Selection Practices
The Application Form
The Written Test
Medical Exam
Physical Ability/Agility Tests
Background Investigation
Psychological Test
Polygraph Testing
Oral Interviews
Selection from the Applicant's Perspective
On the Job, the Selection Process Continues
Training
Academy Training
Ongoing Training
Common Deficiencies in Training
Performance Appraisals
Best Practices in Performance Appraisal
A Final Problem in Appraisals
Retention Strategies
Pay Isn't Everything, But It Is Something
Career Path
Job Design: Criminal Justice Work for the 21st Century
Conclusions
Exercise: Job Design
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Notes
References
Selection Issues: Workforce 2000, Diversity, and Affirmative Action
Introduction: The 21st-Century Workforce
Workforce 2000
Dealing with Diversity
Selection Processes: Who Wants to Work in Criminal Justice?
Entry-Level Corrections and Police Work in Illinois and North Carolina
Illinois
North Carolina
Two-State Comparison
Qualifications
Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action
Civil Rights Legislation
Intentional Discrimination
Reverse Discrimination
Food for Thought
Conclusions
Exercise: Tracking Criminal Justice Employment
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Note
References
Reaching Beyond the Expected: Managing Treatment, Force, Standards, and Accreditation
Introduction: Discipline and Decency
Treatment
The False Dichotomy: Treatment or Security?
Mature Coping and Finding a Niche
Treatment Programming
Death to All Programs (!), or the Nothing Works Mantra
Drug Courts
What Works, or Using Science to Separate the Wheat from the Chaff in Programming
The Challenges of Managing Treatment Programming
Use of Force
Standards and Accreditation
Courts
Police
Corrections
Conclusions
Exercise: Take an Informal Poll
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
Note
References
Strategic Planning and Budgeting
Introduction: Strategic Planning and Budgeting Are at the Very Center of All Things Organizational
Strategic Planning: Definition, Benefits, and the Difficulties of Implementation
Implementing the Plan
Failure of Execution
What Is a Budget?
The Four Stages of the Budget Process
Some Things to Remember About Public Sector Budgeting
Recent History of Budgeting and Planning
Budget Strategies
Cultivating Client Support
Gaining the Trust of Others and Documenting a Need
Looking for Sympathetic Decision Makers
Coping with Painful Actions and Minimizing the Risk of Future Cuts
The Camel's Nose
Making the Program Appear to be Self-Supporting
Capitalizing on Temporary Circumstances
Deception and Confusion
Conclusions
Exercise: Develop a Criminal Justice Budget
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References
Decision Making and Prediction
Introduction
Decisions, Decisions, Decisions: What They are and Who Makes Them (the Decision Makers)
Effective Decision Making
To Act or Not to Act: That Is But One of the Questions!
Obstacles to Good Decision Making: Let Us Count the Ways
Logical Fallacies
Biology and Cognition (Social Intelligence): A Possible Undue Influence
Prediction
Ways to Improve Decision Making
Conclusions
Exercise: The False Argument
Discussion Questions
Key Terms
References
Model Management Practices
Introduction: Criminal Justice Agencies in a Continuing Crisis in Need of a Solution
Salvation Through Consilience
Communication, Leadership, and Culture Change
Human Relations Management Practices
It is the People and Their Goals That Matter
A Consilience of Topics Too: The Unity of Knowledge in Criminal Justice Management Practice
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Key Term
References
Index

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