Case Studies in Biomedical Ethics Decision-Making, Principles, and Cases

ISBN-10: 0195309723
ISBN-13: 9780195309720
Edition: 2010
List price: $64.95
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Description: We are living in an unprecedented era of biomedical revolution. Medicine is remaking humans, and controversy surrounds such topics as abortion, artificial organs, brain circuitry, eugenics, euthanasia, and gene therapy. At the same time, medical  More...

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Book details

List price: $64.95
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/23/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 496
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.716
Language: English

We are living in an unprecedented era of biomedical revolution. Medicine is remaking humans, and controversy surrounds such topics as abortion, artificial organs, brain circuitry, eugenics, euthanasia, and gene therapy. At the same time, medical advances are posing complex ethical problems for both patients and professionals. The most comprehensive and up-to-date collection of its kind, Case Studies in Biomedical Ethics: Decision-Making, Principles, and Cases explores fundamental ethical questions arising from real situations faced by health professionals, patients, and others. Featuring a wide range of more than 100 case studies drawn from current events, court cases, and physicians' experiences, the book is divided into three parts. Part I presents a basic framework for ethical decision-making in healthcare, covering such issues as separating evaluative questions from questions of fact; distinguishing between ethical and nonethical evaluations; and identifying the source of ethical judgments. Expanding upon this framework, Part II explains the ethical principles: beneficence and nonmaleficence, justice, respect for autonomy, veracity, fidelity, and avoidance of killing. Parts I and II provide students with the background to analyze the ethical dilemmas presented in Part III, which features cases on a broad spectrum of issues including abortion, genetics, mental health, confidentiality, health insurance, experimentation on humans, the right to refuse treatment, and death and dying. Each case is accompanied by the authors' commentary, which guides students in considering the issues. Ideal for undergraduate and graduate courses in biomedical ethics, bioethics, and medical ethics, Case Studies in Biomedical Ethics incorporates opening text boxes in each chapter that cross-reference relevant cases in other chapters. It also includes an appendix of important ethical codes and a glossary of key terms.

List of Cases
List of Tables
Preface
Introduction: Four Questions of Ethics
What Are the Source, Meaning, and Justification of Ethical Claims?
Distinguish between Evaluative Statements and Statements Presenting Nonevaluative Facts
Distinguish between Ethical and Nonethical Evaluations
Determine Who Ought to Decide
What Kinds of Acts Are Right?
Consequentialism
Deontological or "Duty-Based" Ethics
Other Issues of Normative Ethics
How Do Rules Apply to Specific Situations?
What Ought to Be Done in Specific Cases?
Notes
Ethics and Values in Medical Cases
A Model for Ethical Problem Solving
The Five-Step Model
Application of the Model
Respond to the Sense that Something Is Wrong
Gather Information
Identify the Ethical Problem/Moral Diagnosis
Seek a Resolution
Work with Others to Choose a Course of Action
Notes
Values in Health and Illness
Identifying Value Judgments in Medicine
Separating Ethical and Other Evaluations
Notes
What Is the Source of Moral Judgments?
Grounding Ethics in the Professional Code
Grounding Ethics in the Physician's Orders
Grounding Ethics in Institutional Policy
Grounding Ethics in the Patient's Values
Grounding Ethics in Religious or Philosophical Perspectives
Notes
Ethical Principles in Medical Ethics
Benefiting the Patient and Others: The Duty to Do Good and Avoid Harm
Benefiting the Patient
Health in Conflict with Other Goods
Conflicts among Health-Related Benefits
Relating Benefits and Harms
Benefits of Rules and Benefits in Specific Cases
Benefiting Society and Individuals Who Are Not Patients
Benefits to Society
Benefits to Specific Nonpatients
Benefits to the Profession
Benefit to the Health Professional and the Health Professional's Family
Notes
Justice: The Allocation of Health Resources
Justice among Patients
Justice between Patients and Others
Justice in Public Policy
Justice and Other Ethical Principles
Notes
Autonomy
Determining Whether a Patient Is Autonomous
External Constraints on Autonomy
Overriding the Choices of Autonomous Persons
Notes
Veracity: Honesty with Patients
The Condition of Doubt
Lying in Order to Benefit
Protecting the Patient by Lying
Protecting the Welfare of Others
Special Cases of Truth-Telling
Patients Who Do Not Want to Be Told
Family Members Who Insist the Patient Not Be Told
The Right of Access to Medical Records
Notes
Fidelity: Promise-Keeping, Loyalty to Patients, and Impaired Professionals
The Ethics of Promises: Explicit and Implicit
Fidelity and Conflicts of Interest
Incompetent and Dishonest Colleagues
Notes
Avoidance of Killing
Active Killing versus Letting Die
Withholding versus Withdrawing Treatment
Direct Versus Indirect Killing
Justifiable Omissions: The Problem of Nutrition and Hydration
Voluntary and Involuntary Killing
Killing as Punishment
Notes
Special Problem Areas
Abortion, Sterilization, and Contraception
Abortion
Abortion for Medical Problems of the Fetus
Abortion Following Sexual Assault
Abortion to Save the Life of the Pregnant Woman
Abortion and the Mentally Incapacitated Woman
Abortion for Socioeconomic Reasons
Sterilization
Contraception
Notes
Genetics, Birth, and the Biological Revolution
Genetic Counseling
Genetic Screening
In Vitro Fertilization and Surrogate Motherhood
Preimplantation Diagnosis
Gene Therapy
Notes
Mental Health and Behavior Control
The Concept of Mental Health
Mental Illness and Autonomous Behavior
Mental Illness and Third-Party Interests
Other Behavior-Controlling Therapies
Notes
Confidentiality: Ethical Disclosure of Medical Information
Breaking Confidence to Benefit the Patient
Breaking Confidence to Benefit Others
Breaking Confidence as Required by Law
Conflict between Confidentiality and Other Duties
Notes
Organ Transplants
Procuring Organs
Donation versus Salvaging
Diseased and Poor-Quality Organs
Donation after Cardiac Death
Preserving the Organs of the Dying
Socially Directed Organ Donation
Living Donor/Deceased Donor Organ Swaps
Children as Living Organ Sources
Allocating Organs
Maximizing Benefits and Distributing Organs Fairly
When Voluntary Risks Cause a Need for Organs
Multiple Organs and Special Priority for Special People
Notes
Health Insurance, Health System Planning, and Rationing
The Problem of Small, Incremental Benefits
Limits on Unproved Therapies
Marginally Beneficial, Expensive Therapy
Valued Care that Is Not Cost-worthy
Funding Care that Patients Have Refused
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers versus Insurers
Insurance and the Uninsured
Notes
Experimentation on Human Subjects
Calculating Risks and Benefits
Privacy and Confidentiality
Equity in Research
Conflicts of Interest in Research
Informed Consent in Research
Notes
Consent and the Right to Refuse Treatment
The Elements of a Consent
The Standards for Consent
Comprehension and Voluntariness
Notes
Death and Dying
The Definition of Death
Competent and Formerly Competent Patients
Never Competent Patients
Never Competent Persons without Available Family
Never Competent Persons with Available Family
Futile Care and Limits Based on the Interests of Others
Notes
Appendix: Codes of Ethics
The Hippocratic Oath
World Medical Association, Declaration of Geneva
The American Medical Association, Principles of Medical Ethics
Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights
Notes
Glossary
List of Cases from Public Sources
Index

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