Myth of Ownership Taxes and Justice

ISBN-10: 0195176561

ISBN-13: 9780195176568

Edition: 2005

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Description: In a capitalist economy, taxes are the most important instrument by which the political system puts into practice a conception of economic and distributive justice. Taxes arouse strong passions, fueled not only by conflicts of economic self-interest, but by conflicting ideas of fairness. Taking as a guiding principle the conventional nature of private property, Murphy and Nagel show how taxes can only be evaluated as part of the overall system of property rights that they help tocreate. Justice or injustice in taxation, they argue, can only mean justice or injustice in the system of property rights and entitlements that result from a particular regime. Taking up ethical issues about individual liberty, interpersonal obligation, and both collective and personal responsibility,Murphy and Nagel force us to reconsider how our tax policy shapes our system of property rights.

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Book details

List price: $26.95
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/18/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 238
Size: 5.25" wide x 8.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.880
Language: English

Murphy teaches philosophy and law at New York University.

Introduction
Traditional Criteria of Tax Equity
Political Morality in Tax Policy: Fairness
Vertical Equity: The Distribution of Tax Burdens
The Benefit Principle
Ability to Pay: Endowment
Ability to Pay: Equal Sacrifice
Ability to Pay as an Egalitarian Idea
The Problem of Everyday Libertarianism
Horizontal Equity
Economic Justice in Political Theory
Political Legitimacy
Consequentialism and Deontology
Public Goods
Benefits for Individuals
Efficiency and Utilitarianism
Distributive Justice, Fairness, and Priority to the Worst Off
Equality of Opportunity
Legitimate Means and Individual Responsibility
Rewards and Punishments
Liberty and Libertarianism
The Moral Significance of the Market
Personal Motives and Political Values: The Moral Division of Labor
Conclusion
Redistribution and Public Provision
Two Functions of Taxation
Paying for Public Goods
Which Goods Are Public?
Redistribution
Transfer or Provision?
Public Duties
Conclusion
The Tax Base
Efficiency and Justice
Outcomes, not Burdens
The Consumption Base and Fairness to Savers
Fairness as Equal Liberty
Desert and the Accumulation of Capital: The "Common Pool"
Wealth and Welfare
Wealth and Opportunity
Endowment and the Value of Autonomy
Exclusions and Credits
Transitions
Progressivity
Graduation, Progression, Incidence, and Outcomes
Assessment of Outcomes
Optimal Taxation
Tax Reform
Inheritance
The "Death Tax"
The Tax Base of the Donee
No Deduction for Donors
Details and Objections
Equal Opportunity and Transfer Taxation
Conclusion
Tax Discrimination
Justifying Differential Treatment
An Example: The Marriage Penalty
Incentive Effects and Arbitrariness
Conclusion: Politics
Theory and Practice
Justice and Self-Interest
Plausible Policies
Effective Moral Ideas
Notes
References
Index
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