Science of Personality

ISBN-10: 0195159713

ISBN-13: 9780195159714

Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)

List price: $119.95
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Description: An undergraduate text that presents the field of personality as it exists today, rather than the grand theories of personality that have dominated texts since the 1960s. Major theories current in the field are discussed in relation to relevant research and each chapter begins with an overview.

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Book details

List price: $119.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/15/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 528
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

Lawrence A. Pervin is Professor of Psychology at Rutgers University. Following an undergraduate education at Brooklyn College and Queens College (City University of New York), he obtained his doctorate from Harvard University in 1962. After six years at Princeton University he went to Rutgers as an Associate Dean to help develop a new, experimental college. The author of many journal articles, including a Citation Classic, and invited book chapters, he also is the author of two leading personality texts, MDULPersonality: Theory and ResearchMDNM (Fifth Edition) and MDULCurrent Controversies and Issues in PersonalityMDNM (Second Edition). Dr. Pervin has served on the editorial board of MDULPsychological ReviewMDNM and the MDULJournal of Personality and Social PsychologyMDNM, and is founding editor of MDULPsychological InquiryMDNM, a new international journal of peer commentary and review.

Introduction: The Scientific Study Of Personality.
Three Research Traditions
The Clinical Approach to Personality
The Clinical Approach: An Illustration
Strenghts and Limitations of the Clinical Approach
The Correlational Approach to Personality
Sir Francis Galton and His Followers
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
Two Illustrations of the Correlational Approach: The Development of Measures of Satisfaction with Life and of Optimism
Strengths and Limitations of the Correlational Approach
The Experimental Approach to Personality
Cognitive Approaches
The Experimental Approach: An Illustration
Strengths and Limitations of the Experimental Approach
Strengths and Limitations of the Three Approaches
Shared Goals, Divergent Paths, and Agreement among Data Sources
Major Concepts
Summary
Units Of Personality
Trait Units Of Personality.
The Trait Psychology Of Gordon W. Allport
The Trait Psychology Of Raymond B. Cattell
The Trait Psychology Of Hans J. Eysenck
The Five-Factor Model (Ffm)
Validating Evidence
Cross-Cultural Agreement on Factors
Self-Ratings and Ratings by Others
Connections to Biology: Genetics, Evolution, Neuroscience
Diagnosis of Personality Disorders
Predictive Utility
Early Temperament And Personality Development
Consistency Of Personality And The Person-Situation Controversy
Implications for the Prediction of Behavior
A Critical Overview Of Traits And Factor Analysis
What Is a Trait?
How Many Traits? Which Ones? Is That All There Is?
The Method--Factor Analysis
Description or Explanation?
Conclusion
Major Concepts
Summary
Cognitive Units Of Personality.
The Concept Of Cognitive Style
Two Precognitive Revolution Theorists: Kelly And Rotter
Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
Rotter's Social Learning Theory
Two Postcognitive Revolution Theorists: Mischel And Bandura
Mischel's Cognitive Social Learning Theory
Research Illustrating Situational Specificity
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Is a Trait-Social Cognitive Rapprochement Possible?
Additional Cognitive Units: Schema, Attributions, And Beliefs
Schema
Attributions-Explanations
Beliefs
Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognition And Culture
Analysis Of Cognitive Units
Major Concepts
Summary
Motivational Units Of Personality.
Pitchfork-Drive Theories Of Motivation
Freud's Drive Theory
Stimulus-Response Theory
Murray's Need-Press Model
Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
Carrot-Incentive Theories Of Motivation
Historical Note
Current Work in Goal Theory
Cognitive Theories Of Motivation: Kelly's Jackass
Kelly's Emphasis on Anticipating Events
Attributional Models
Weiner's Attributional Model
Dweck's Model of Implicit Beliefs about the Self and the World
Growth, Self-Actualization Theories Of Motivation
Are There Universal Human Needs Or Motives?
Comments On Motivational Units
Relationships Among The Units Of Personality: Traits, Cognitions, And Motives
Major Concepts
Summary
Personality Development
The Nature And Nurture Of Personality.
The Nature Of Personality: Evolution And Genetics
Three Founders: Darwin, Mendel, and Galton
Evolutionary, Ultimate Explanations
Male-Female Mate Preferences
Male-Female Differences in Causes of Jealousy
Evolutionary Explanations
Genetic, Proximate Explanations
Behavioral Genetics
The Nature of Nurture: The Effects of Genes on Environments
The Nurture Of Personality
Shared and Nonshared Environments
Does Parenting Matter? The Case for Familial Influence
The Nature And Nurture Of Personality: Update And Conclusion
Major Concepts
Summary
Charting People's Lives Over Time.
Stage Theories Of Personality
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development
Critique of Stage Theories of Development
Longitudinal Studies Of Development
Stability and Change in Personality Development
Illustrative Longitudinal Studies
Magnusson's Swedish Study of Individual Development and Adjustment (IDA)
The Longitudinal Research of Jack and Jeanne Block
The Minnesota Parent-Child Project
Additional Longitudinal Evidence of Relative Stability and Relative Change
Stability-Continuity Of Personality: Two Opposing Points Of View
Some Thoughts On Stability And Change In Personality And The Question Of Process
Major Concepts
Summary
Topics In Personality Research
The Unconscious
Illustrative Phenomena
Brief Historical Overview
The Dynamic Unconscious Of Psychoanalysis
Evidence for the Mechanisms of Defense
Explaining the Dynamic Unconscious
The Cognitive Unconscious
Unconscious Influences on Memory and Perception
Unconscious Influences on Feelings, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Others
Chronically Accessible Constructs
Summary
Comparison Of The Dynamic And Cognitive Views Of The Unconscious
Implications For The Use Of Self-Report Measures
Conclusions
Major Concepts
Summary
The Concept Of The Self.
Why Study The Concept Of The Self?
The Waxing And Waning Of Interest In The Self: A Historical Perspective
Development Of The Self
The Self as Separate from Other People and Objects: Self-Perception
The Development of Self-Consciousness
Summary of the Developmental Perspective
Three Views Of The Structure Of The Self
The Phenomenological Theory of Carl Rogers
The Psychoanalytic Concept of the Self
Sullivan's Interpersonal School of Psychiatry
Object Relations Theory
Social Cognitive View of the Self
Motivational Processes Relevant to the Self: Self-Verification and Self-Enhancement
Comparison of the Social Cognitive and Psychoanalytic Views of the Self
Individual Differences In The Self And Self-Processes
Bandura's Self-Efficacy Concept
Carver and Scheier's Control Theory and Private versus Public Self-Consciousness
Higgin's Theory of Self-Guides
Self-Esteem
Neuroscience And The Self
Culture And The Self
Final Reflections On The Self
Major Concepts
Summary
The Path From Thinking To Action.
Rational Choice Behavior: Expectancy X Value Theory
Tolman's Model of Purposive Behavior
Lewin's Level of Aspiration Research
Rotter's Expectancy-Value Model
The Stasis And Flow Of Behavior: Toward A Theory Of Goals
Goals, Self-Regulation, And Action: Programs Of Research
Bandura's Model of Goals-Standards and Self-Regulation
Personal Projects, Personal Strivings, and Life Tasks
Little's Research on Personal Projects
Emmons's Research on Personal Strivings
Cantor's Research on Life Tasks
Approach-Avoidance Goals and Promotion-Prevention Focus
Common Elements, Differences, and Unanswered Questions
Breakdowns In Self-Regulation And The Problem Of Volition
Major Concepts
Summary
Emotion, Adaptation, And Health.
Affect Within The Context Of Traditional Personality Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers
Trait Theory
Social Cognitive, Information-Processing Theory
A Central Role for Affect in Personality
Basic Emotions Theory
Two Emotion-Motivation Systems
The Biology Of Emotion
Culture And Emotion
Emotion Regulation, Coping With Stress, And Adaptation
Emotion Regulation
Stress and Coping
Coping and the Mechanisms of Defense
Emotion, Adaptation, And Health
Optimism and Health: The Power of Positive Thinking
Neuroticism and Negative Affectivity
Suppression versus Expression of thoughts and Emotions
Wegner's Research on the Effects of Thought Suppression
Pennebaker's Research on the Effects of the Inhibition and Disclosure of Emotion
Summary
Conclusion
Major Concepts
Summary
Maladaptive Personality Functioning And Processes Of Change.
Descroption, Explanation, And Prescroption
Trait Theory
Eysenck's Trait Theory
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) and Personality Disorders
Two Illustrative Applications
Applications to Problematic Interpersonal Behavior
Description, Explanation, and Prescription and the Five-Factor Model
The Trait Model of Personality Disorders: Summary
Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychopathology
Object Relations Theory
Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Comparison with Trait Theory
Object Relations, Attachment, and Depression
Therapeutic Change
Description, Explanation, and Prescription and the Psychoanalytic Model
Social Cognitive/Information-Processing Approaches
Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Beck's Cognitive Theory and Therapy
Outcome Research
Cognitive Therapy: Past, Present, and Future
Social Cognitive Mechanisms in Psychopathology
Description, Explanation, and Prescription and the Cognitive Model
Issues Relevant To The Analysis Of Maladaptive Functioning And Therapeutic Change
Situation, Domain Specificity
System Functioning
Emphasis on Unconscious Influences
Cognition, Affect, and Behavior
Changes Produced and Processes of Change
Comparison Of The Alternative Models
Biological And Cultural Aspects Of Maladaptive Personality Functioning And Personality Change
Major Concepts
Summary
Personality Assessment.
The Assessment Of Men By The Staff Of The Office Of Strategic Services
Types Of Personality Data
A Return To Consideration Of Reliability And Validity
Some Questions Relevant To Personality Assessment
Relations between Self and Observer Ratings
The Potential for Deception
The Relation of Fantasy to Behavior, of Explicit Measures to Implicit Measures
Utility for Prediction
Diversity and Personality Assessment
The Relationship Between Personality Theory And Personality Assessment
Conclusion
Major Concepts
Summary
Conclusion: Current Issues And The Prospects For The Science Of Personality.
A Definition Of Personality
Research Strategies
Specificity Versus Generality
Nature And Nurture, Genes And Culture
Malleability-Fixity, Stability-Change
Range Of Convenience And Focus Of Convenience
Bandwidth And Fidelity
Social And Political Aspects Of Personality Theory And Research
Current Areas Of Interest
Prospects For The Future
Summary
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