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Logic

ISBN-10: 0195155017
ISBN-13: 9780195155013
Edition: 4th 1996 (Revised)
Authors: Robert Baum
List price: $109.95
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Description: For more than twenty years, introductory logic students have relied on this text to provide clear lessons as well as practical applications of the discipline. Robert Baum emphasizes formal logic and utilizes such elements of popular culture as  More...

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Book details

List price: $109.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 1996
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/20/1995
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 694
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.684
Language: English

For more than twenty years, introductory logic students have relied on this text to provide clear lessons as well as practical applications of the discipline. Robert Baum emphasizes formal logic and utilizes such elements of popular culture as cartoons and advertisements to illustrate technical concepts. Logic, 4/e addresses all the basic concepts, including informal analysis of statements, arguments, Aristotelian logic, propositional logic, quantificational logic, enumerative induction, the scientific method, probability, informal fallacies, definitions, and applied logic. As with previous editions, Logic, 4/e is extremely flexible--most of the chapters can be included or excluded from a particular course depending on the goals of the course and the time available. This fourth edition features hundreds of additional exercises throughout.

Introduction
The Value and Uses of Logic
What Can Be Learned about Logic and How Can It Be Learned?
Logic versus Psychology
The Organization of This Book
Informal Analysis of Statements
Sentences
Cognitive and Noncognitive Uses of Sentences
Statements
Recognizing Sentences Used to Express Statements
Self-Evident and Supported Statements
Logical Relationships between Two (or More) Propositions
Consistency
Real versus Apparent Disagreements
Verbal Disagreements
Implication
Logical Equivalence
Independence
Informal Analysis of Arguments
Inferences and Arguments
The Logical Sense of ""Argument""
Premises and Conclusions
Problems in Recognizing Intended Arguments
Supplying Missing Statements
Deductive and Inductive Arguments
Criteria for Good Arguments
Dealing with Enthymemes
Complex Argument Structures
Analyzing Sample Arguments
Some Basic Elements of Argument Analysis
Aristotelian Logic: Statements
Categorical Statements
Abbreviations
Schemas
Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements
Logical Relations between Categorical Propositions
Immediate Inferences
The Traditional Square of Opposition
The Boolean Interpretation
Aristotelian Logic: Arguments
The Categorical Syllogism
Standard-Form Syllogisms
Mood and Figure
Testing the Validity of Syllogisms
Testing by Counterexamples
Testing with Venn Diagrams
Testing by Rules
The Boolean Interpretation
Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Language
Propositional Logic: Statements
Compound Propositions and Logical Operators
Truth-Functional Operators
Propositional Abbreviations and Schemas
Conjunction
Truth Tables
Negation
Disjunction
Material Implication
Material Equivalence
Propositions with More Than One Logical Operator
Truth Table Construction
Logically Equivalent Statements
Logical Equivalence and Material Equivalence
Tautologies
Contradictions
Contingent Statements
Propositional Logic: Arguments
Truth-Functional Validity
Contradictory Premises and Tautological Conclusions
Abbreviating Truth-Functional Arguments
Schematizing Truth-Functional Arguments
Testing Validity by Truth Tables
The Short Truth Table Method
Truth-Functional Arguments and Corresponding Conditionals
The Propositional Calculus
Constructing a Formal Proof
Inference Rules
Rules of Thumb for Proof Construction
The Rule of Rigor
The Replacement Rule
Conditions of Proof
Indirect Proof
Deductive Completeness
Quantificational Logic: Statements
Predicates and Individuals
Variables and Constants
Compound Propositions
Existential Quantifiers
Universal Quantifiers
Negation and Quantifier Exchange
Multiple Quantifiers
Quantificational Logic: Arguments
Universal Instantiation
Existential Generalization
Existential Instantiation
Universal Generalization
Inductive Arguments
Enumerative Inductions
Relative Strength of Enumerative Inductions
The Possible Elimination of Inductions by Analogy
Statistical Inductions
Scientific Method
The Hypothetico-Deductive Method
Hypothetic-Deductive Method and Inductive Generalization
Crucial Experiments
Scientific Method
Causal Explanations
Kinds of Cause
Mill's Method
Replicability and Controls
The Role of Logic in Science
Probability
Some Basic Terminology
Two General Principles of Probability
Three Theories of Probability
Independent and Mutually Exclusive Outcomes
The Probability Calculus
Informal Fallacies
Disguised Nonarguments
Valid but Fallacious Arguments
Other Informal Fallacies
Definitions
Kinds of Definitions
Uses of Definitions
Criteria for Good Definitions
Applied Logic
Burden of Proof
The Principle of Induction
Choosing the Appropriate System
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises
Index

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