Organic Chemistry

ISBN-10: 0195119991
ISBN-13: 9780195119992
Edition: 4th 2001 (Revised)
Authors: G. Marc Loudon
List price: $89.95
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Description: This successful book covers the fundamentals and basics of organic chemistry. The text is accompanied by a multimedia CD-ROM and a solutions manual with answer to all problems; the book also contains numerous examples of organic chemistry  More...

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Book details

List price: $89.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/27/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 1421
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.00" long x 2.00" tall
Weight: 6.556

This successful book covers the fundamentals and basics of organic chemistry. The text is accompanied by a multimedia CD-ROM and a solutions manual with answer to all problems; the book also contains numerous examples of organic chemistry applications in biology. Full of effective analogies that enhance Loudon's explanations of important concepts, Organic Chemistry provides an appropriate balance of synthesis and mechanisms. With the author's lucid, student-friendly style, organic chemistry becomes a logical and exciting subject. The book's numerous well-selected exercises motivate students to analyse problems before rushing to a solution. In addition this text incorporates the biological, environmental and industrial applications of organic chemistry.

About the Author
Chemical Bonding and Chemical Structure
Classical Theories of Chemical Bonding
Structures of Covalent Compounds
Resonance Structures
Wave Nature of the Electron
Electronic Structure of the Hydrogen Atom
Electronic Structures of More Complex Atoms
Another Look at the Covalent Bond: Molecular Orbitals
Hybrid Orbitals
Key Ideas in Chapter 1
Additional Problems
Unbranched Alkanes
Conformations of Alkanes
Constitutional Isomers and Nomenclature
Cycloalkanes and Skeletal Structures
Physical Properties of Alkanes
Combustion and Elemental Analysis
Occurrence and Use of Alkanes
Functional Groups, Compound Classes, and the "R" Notation
Key Ideas in Chapter 2
Additional Problems
Acids and Bases: The Curved-Arrow Notation
Lewis Acid-Base Association Reactions
Electron-Pair Displacement Reactions
Review of the Curved-Arrow Notation
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium
Relationship of Structure to Acidity
Key Ideas in Chapter 3
Additional Problems
Introduction to Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity
Structure and Bonding in Alkenes
Nomenclature of Alkenes
Unsaturation Number
Physical Properties of Alkenes
Relative Stabilities of Alkene Isomers
Addition Reactions of Alkenes
Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkenes
Reaction Rates
Key Ideas in Chapter 4
Additional Problems
Addition Reactions of Alkenes
Reactions of Alkenes with Halogens
Writing Organic Reactions
Conversion of Alkenes Into Alcohols
Ozonolysis of Alkenes
Free-Radical Addition of Hydrogen Bromide to Alkenes
Polymers: Free-Radical Polymerization of Alkenes
Alkenes in the Chemical Industry
Key Ideas in Chapter 5
Additional Problems
Principles of Stereochemistry
Enantiomers, Chirality, and Symmetry
Nomenclature of Enantiomers: The R,S System
Physical Properties of Enantiomers: Optical Activity
Stereochemical Correlation
Meso Compounds
Enantiomeric Resolution
Chiral Molecules Without Asymmetric Atoms
Conformational Stereoisomers
Fischer Projections
The Postulation of Tetrahedral Carbon
Key Ideas in Chapter 6
Additional Problems
Cyclic Compounds: Stereochemistry of Reactions
Relative Stabilities of the Monocyclic Alkanes
Conformations of Cyclohexane
Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes: Conformational Analysis
Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
Cyclopentane, Cyclobutane, and Cyclopropane
Bicyclic and Polycyclic Compounds
Relative Reactivities of Stereoisomers
Reactions That Form Stereoisomers
Stereochemistry of Chemical Reactions
Key Ideas in Chapter 7
Additional Problems
Introduction to Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols, and Sulfides
Effect of Molecular Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding on Physical Properties
Solvents in Organic Chemistry
Applications of Solubility and Solvation Principles
Acidity of Alcohols and Thiols
Basicity of Alcohols and Ethers
Grignard and Organolithium Reagents
Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, and Ethers
Key Ideas in Chapter 8
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Alkyl Halides
An Overview of Nucleophilic Substitution and [beta]-Elimination Reactions
Equilibrium in Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
Reaction Rates
The S[subscript N]2 Reaction
The E2 Reaction
The S[subscript N]1 and E1 Reactions
Summary of Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides
Carbenes and Carbenoids
Key Ideas in Chapter 9
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Alcohols and Thiols
Dehydration of Alcohols
Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrogen Halides
Sulfonate and Inorganic Ester Derivatives of Alcohols
Conversion of Alcohols into Alkyl Halides: Summary
Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
Oxidation of Alcohols
Biological Oxidation of Ethanol
Chemical and Stereochemical Group Equivalence
Oxidation of Thiols
Synthesis of Alcohols
Design of Organic Synthesis
Key Ideas in Chapter 10
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Ethers, Epoxides, Glycols, and Sulfides
Synthesis of Ethers and Sulfides
Synthesis of Epoxides
Cleavage of Ethers
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Epoxides
Preparation and Oxidative Cleavage of Glycols
Oxonium and Sulfonium Salts
Neighboring-Group Participation: Intramolecular Reactions
Oxidation of Ethers and Sulfides
The Three Fundamental Operations of Organic Synthesis
Key Ideas in Chapter 11
Additional Problems
Introduction to Spectroscopy: Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry
Introduction to Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy
Infrared Absorption and Chemical Structure
Functional-Group Infrared Absorptions
The Infrared Spectrometer
Introduction to Mass Spectrometry
Key Ideas in Chapter 12
Additional Problems
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
An Overview of Proton NMR Spectroscopy
Physical Basis of NMR Spectroscopy
The NMR Spectrum: Chemical Shift and Integral
The NMR Spectrum: Spin-Spin Splitting
Complex NMR Spectra
USE of Deuterium in Proton NMR
Characteristic Functional-Group NMR Absorptions
NMR Spectroscopy of Dynamic Systems
Carbon NMR
Solving Structure Problems with Spectroscopy
The NMR Spectrometer
Other uses of NMR
Key Idens in Chapter 13
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Alkynes
Nomenclature of Alkynes
Structure and Bonding In Alkynes
Physical Properties of Alkynes
Introduction to Addition Reac Hons of the Triple Bond
Conversion of Alkynes Into Aldehydes and Ketones
Reduction of Alkynes
Acidity of 1-Alkynes
Organic Synthesis Using Alkynes
Occurrence and use of Alkynes
Key Ideas in Chapter 14
Additional Problems
Dienes, Resonance, and Aromaticity
Structure and Stability of Dienes
Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
The Diels-Alder Reaction
Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Conjugated Dienes
Diene Polymers
Introduction to Aromatic Compounds
Key Ideas in Chapter 15
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Benzene and Its Derivatives
Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives
Physical Properties of Benzene Derivatives
Spectroscopy of Benzene Derivatives
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Benzene
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Substituted Benzenes
Hydrogenation of Benzene Derivatives
Source and Industrial use of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Key Ideas in Chapter 16
Additional Problems
Allylic and Benzylic Reactivity
Reactions Involving Allylic and Benzylic Carbocations
Reactions Involving Allylic and Benzylic Radicals
Reactions Involving Allylic and Benzylic Anions
Allylic and Benzylic S[subscript N]2 Reactions
Benzylic Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes
Key Ideas in Chapter 17
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Aryl Halides, Vinylic Halides, and Phenols: Transition-Metal Catalysis
Lack of Reactivity of Vinylic and Aryl Halides Under S[subscript N]2 Conditions
Elimination Reactions of Vinylic Halides
Lack of Reactivity of Vinylic and Aryl Halides Under S[subscript N]1 Conditions
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Aryl Halides
Transition-Metal Catalyzed Coupling Reactions
Acidity of Phenols
Oxidation of Phenols to Quinones
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Phenols
Reactivity of the Aryl-Oxygen Bond
Industrial Preparation and use of Phenol
Key Ideas in Chapter 18
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Aldehydes and Ketones: Carbonyl-Addition Reactions
Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones
Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones
Synthesis of Aldehydes and Ketones
Introduction to Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions
Basicity of Aldehydes and Ketones
Reversible Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones to Alcohols
Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Grignard and Related Reagents
Acetals and Their use as Protecting Groups
Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Amines
Reduction of Carbonyl Groups to Methylene Groups
The Wittig Alkene Synthesis
Oxidation of Aldehydes to Carboxylic Acids
Manufacture and use of Aldehydes and Ketones
Key Ideas in Chapter 19
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Carboxylic Acids
Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
Structure and Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acids
Acid-Base Properties of Carboxylic Acids
Fatty Acids, Soaps, and Detergents
Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids
Introduction to Carboxylic Acid Reactions
Conversion of Carboxylic Acids into Esters
Conversion of Carboxylic Acids into Acid Chlorides and Anhydrides
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids to Primary Alcohols
Decarboxylation of Carboxylic Acids
Key Ideas in Chapter 20
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Nomenclature and Classification of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Structures of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Basicity of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Introduction to Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Hydrolysis of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives with Nucleophiles
Reduction of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives with Organometallic Reagents
Synthesis of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Use and Occurrence of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
Key Ideas in Chapter 21
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Enolate Ions, Enols, and [alpha],[beta]-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds
Acidity of Carbonyl compounds
Enolization of Carbonyl Compounds
[alpha]-Halogenation of Carbonyl Compounds
Aldol Addition and Aldol Condensation
Condensation Reactions Involving Ester Enolate Ions
Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
Alkylation of Ester Enolate Ions
Conjugate-Addition Reactions
Reduction of [alpha],[beta]-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds
Reactions of [alpha],[beta]-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds with Organometallic Reagents
Organic Synthesis with Conjugate-Addition Reactions
Key Ideas in Chapter 22
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Amines
Nomenclature of Amines
Structure of Amines
Physical Properties of Amines
Spectroscopy of Amines
Basicity and Acidity of Amines
Quaternary Ammonium Salts
Alkylation and Acylation Reactions of Amines
Hofmann Elimination of Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides
Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Aniline Derivatives
Diazotization: Reactions of Diazonium Ions
Synthesis of Amines
Use and Occurrence of Amines
Key Ideas in Chapter 23
Additional Problems
Chemistry of Naphthalene and the Aromatic Heterocycles
Chemistry of Naphthalene
Introduction to the Aromatic Heterocycles
Chemistry of Furan, Pyrrole, and Thiophene
Synthesis of Indoles
Chemistry of Pyridine and Quinoline
Occurrence of Heterocyclic Compounds
Key Ideas in Chapter 24
Additional Problems
Pericyclic Reactions
Molecular Orbitals of Conjugated [pi]-Electron Systems
Electrocyclic Reactions
Cycloaddition Reactions
Sigmatropic Reactions
Summary of the Pericyclic Selection Rules
Fluxional Molecules
Formation of Vitamin D
Key Ideas in Chapter 25
Additional Problems
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
Nomenclature of Amino Acids and Peptides
Stereochemistry of the [alpha]-Amino Acids
Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids and Peptides
Synthesis and Enantiomeric Resolution of [alpha]-Amino Acids
Acylation and Esterification Reactions of Amino Acids
Determination of Peptide Structure
Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis
Combinatorial Chemistry
Structures of Peptides and Proteins
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
Occurrence of Peptides and Proteins
Key Ideas in Chapter 26
Additional Problems
Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids
Classification and Properties of Carbohydrates
Structures of the Monosaccharides
Mutarotation of Carbohydrates
Base-Catalyzed Isomerization of Aldoses and Ketoses
Ether and Ester Derivatives of Carbohydrates
Oxidation and Reduction Reactions of Carbohydrates
Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis
Proof of Glucose Stereochemistry
Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids
DNA, RNA, and the Genetic Code
Key Ideas in Chapter 27
Additional Problems
Substitutive Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
Infrared Absorptions of Organic Compounds
Proton NMR Chemical Shifts in Organic Compounds
[superscript 13]C NMR Chemical Shifts in Organic Compounds
Summary of Synthetic Methods
Reactions Used to Form Carbon-Carbon Bonds
Typical Acidities and Basicities of Organic Functional Groups

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