Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom

ISBN-10: 0194421724
ISBN-13: 9780194421720
Edition: 2000 (Teachers Edition, Instructors Manual, etc.)
Authors: Tricia Hedge
List price: $39.72 Buy it from $14.01
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Description: This is a comprehensive handbook for teachers wishing to develop and explore their teaching. It involves teachers in their own professional development and aims to develop insights into issues, problems, and possibilities in ELT methodology. It is  More...

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Book details

List price: $39.72
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/2/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.880

This is a comprehensive handbook for teachers wishing to develop and explore their teaching. It involves teachers in their own professional development and aims to develop insights into issues, problems, and possibilities in ELT methodology. It is also useful as a general reference for the classroom teacher. Each chapter is illustrated with examples from course materials and includes follow-up activities and recommended reading.

Acknowledgements
Introduction
A framework for teaching and learning
Learners and learning, classrooms and contexts
Introduction: issues for the language teacher
What do we know about how languages are learned?
The nature of input
The process of intake
The role of interaction in the classroom
The role of error
How do differences among learners affect learning processes and teaching procedures?
Aptitude
Learning style and learning strategies
Affective factors
Motivation for learning English
What factors of context should teachers take into account?
What roles can teachers and learners play in the learning process?
The teacher's roles and responsibilities
The learner's roles and responsibilities
What roles can learning materials play?
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
The communicative classroom
Introduction: the concept of communicative language ability
What are the components of communicative language ability?
Linguistic competence
Pragmatic competence
Discourse competence
Strategic competence
Fluency
What are the issues for the communicative curriculum?
What are the implications for the communicative classroom?
What are communicative tasks and what are their roles in teaching and learning?
How can we manage a communicative classroom?
What does communicative language teaching imply for authenticity in the classroom?
What are the issues in applying a communicative approach in context?
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Learner autonomy and learner training
Introduction: the self-directed learner
What do we know about the strategies of the 'good language learner'?
Types of learner strategy
Research into learner strategies
What insights can we gain from educational thinking on autonomous learning?
What are the implications for learner training in the classroom?
Activities which help learners to reflect on learning
Activities which train strategies and equip learners to be active
Activities which encourage learners to monitor and check their own progress
What role can self-access facilities play in language learning?
Are learner autonomy and learner training universally appropriate concepts?
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Teaching the language system
Vocabulary
Introduction: the task of learning vocabulary
What do we know about the lexical system of English?
Denotative and connotative meaning
Meaning relations among words
How do second language learners acquire vocabulary?
Strategies for vocabulary learning
Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition
What are the implications for the teaching of vocabulary?
Developing a variety of techniques for the teaching of meaning
Encouraging the development of effective strategies
Exposing learners to vocabulary through reading and training lexical inferencing
Teaching the effective use of dictionaries
Evaluating the vocabulary component of coursebooks
Teaching vocabulary explicitly through a range of activity types
Developing resources for vocabulary teaching
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Grammar
Introduction: the role of grammar in English language teaching
What do we know about the learning of grammar?
Noticing
Reasoning and hypothesizing
Structuring and restructuring
Automatizing
What information can help us in the selection and presentation of grammar?
Grammar as meaning
Grammar in discourse
Grammar and style
What principles can guide us in the teaching of grammar?
Presenting grammar
Practising grammar
How can we design the grammar component of a course?
How can we suit approach to learner needs?
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Developing the language skills
Reading
Introduction: making sense of a text
What do we know about the process of second language reading?
In what ways is reading an interactive process?
In what ways is reading a purposeful process?
In what ways is reading a critical process?
What is the role of extensive reading?
What are the implications for the teaching of reading?
How do we establish goals for the reading classroom?
What criteria do we use to select reading texts?
What kinds of tasks help to develop reading ability?
Can we help students to read critically?
How can we encourage extensive reading?
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Listening
Introduction: the role of listening in the ELT curriculum
What do we know about the listening process?
Bottom-up processes in listening
Top-down processes in listening
Purposes for listening
What 'uncertainties' exist for foreign language listeners?
Uncertainties of confidence
Uncertainties deriving from the presentation of speech
Uncertainties because of gaps in the message
Uncertain strategies
Uncertainties of language
Uncertainties of content
Visual uncertainties
What are the implications for the English language classroom?
Creating reasons for listening
Selecting texts for listening
Designing listening activities for the classroom
Building confidence in listening to English
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Speaking
Introduction: skills and strategies in speaking English
What is involved in speaking English competently?
Distinguishing types of speaking situation
Making oneself understood
Managing interaction
What are the issues in teaching the phonological aspects of English?
Choosing a model for pronunciation teaching
Taking a holistic or atomistic approach
Selecting practice according to student need
What are the implications for classroom practice in the teaching of spoken English?
Talking with students about spoken English
Making accuracy-based practice meaningful
Designing and evaluating fluency-based activities
Providing a range and balance of activities in a course
Teaching the pronunciation component of a course
Treating error in the classroom
Managing classroom interaction
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Writing
Introduction: a contemporary writing classroom
What do we know about the process of writing?
What strategies do skilled writers use as they compose?
What activities characterize the writing process?
What are the implications of a process approach?
Helping students to generate ideas
Providing practice in planning
Contextualizing tasks to develop a sense of audience
Encouraging students in revision strategies
Supporting students with technology
Issues in introducing a process approach
How can we analyse and describe the structure of written texts?
What are the implications of a text-based approach to writing?
Helping students to identify their writing needs
Building awareness of discourse organization
Helping students to develop crafting skills
Enabling students to appreciate the criteria for an effective text
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Planning and assessing learning
Course design
Introduction: roles for the teacher in course design
What are the steps in course design?
Considering the students in their context of learning
Establishing goals and objectives
Planning the syllabus
Designing a course unit
What procedures can be helpful in evaluating courses?
What choices do teachers need to make in course design?
Choosing a textbook
Taking a process approach
Using projects in ELT
Negotiating with learners
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Classroom assessment
Introduction: assessment and testing
What is testing?
The structuralist influence
The communicative influence
What is the role of classroom assessment?
What purposes should classroom assessment have?
What kind of feedback is useful?
What assessment procedures are available?
What characterizes good assessment practice?
Are affective considerations relevant to assessment?
How can good assessment practice be framed?
Conclusion
Discussion topics and projects
Further reading
Notes on Introductory tasks
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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