Modern China Continuity and Change, 1644 to the Present

ISBN-10: 0136000606

ISBN-13: 9780136000600

Edition: 2010

List price: $89.80 Buy it from $25.84
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Description: Why another book on China? Four reasons: This book places a special emphasis on Chinarsquo;s culture, warfare, and immediate neighbors, while its organization provides structural convenience not found in other surveys of modern Chinese history. First, this book uses a comparative approach to bridge the cultural divide separating Chinese history from Western readers trying to understand it. It compares the embedded assumptions, patterns of analysis, and primary values that distinguish these two great civilizations, not to suggest the superiority of either; but rather, to reach a Western audience, who may be unaware that many of their core assumptions and values are not shared by others. This is not an attempt to understand China in its own terms, but in comparison to the West so as to bridge the cultural divide. Second, this book emphasizes the tragic role of warfare in Chinese history. Far more so than in most other countries, warfare has wracked Chinese society for the last two centuries: A cascade of internal rebellions, secession movements, and civil and foreign wars continued with only short interruptions from 1800 until the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. On a human level, it is incumbent on this and succeeding generations not to forget the holocaust that has been a hallmark of modern Chinese history. Third, all too often the study of China has been done in semi-isolation from its neighbors. The authors of this book have spent years living not only in China and Taiwan, but also in Russia and Japan, and have visited South Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Modern Chinese history cannot be understood without a deep appreciation of the foreign influence that has bombarded China from all sides. Western texts generally give due attention to the Western European powers and to the United States. Some devote time to discussing the Japanese influence. None gives adequate attention to the activities of Russia. Most Western Sinologists do not read Russian, nor do most Chinese secondary sources emphasize Russiarsquo;s extensive influence because Russian diplomats from the 19 th century onward consistently succeeded in promoting their countryrsquo;s national interests at Chinese expense. On a human level, this is not a story many Chinese want to tell. On a national level, Sino-Russian relations are so central to Chinarsquo;s national security that the topic is generally classified. The authors learned about Russo-Chinese relations from years of research in the archives of Russia, China, Taiwan, Japan, and the United States reading materials covering Russo-Chinese diplomatic relations from the 18 th through the 20 th centuries.

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Book details

List price: $89.80
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 12/17/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 528
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Contents
List of Maps
List of Features
List of Tables
Preface
Acknowledgments
Technical Note
About the Authors
Introduction A Cultural Framework for Understanding China
Top-down Characteristics: Confucianism, Militarism, Legalism, and Sinification
Radial Characteristics: Sinocentrism, Barbarian Management, and the Provincial System
Bottom-up Characteristics: Daoism, Buddhism, and Poetry
Cyclical Elements: Yin and Yang, the Dynastic Cycle, and Historical Continuity
Retrospective Elements: Fate and the Sources of Knowledge
Conclusions
The Creation and Maturation of an Empire, 1644���1842
The Creation of the Qing Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty
The Qing Conquest of Ming China: Nurgaci and His Successors
Grafting the Manchus onto Han China under the Shunzhi Emperor
Territorial Consolidation under the Kangxi Emperor
Institutional Consolidation under the Yongzheng Emperor
Conclusions
The Maximization of Empire under the Qianlong Emperor
The Conquest of the Zunghar Mongols
The Conquest of the Tarim Basin and Tibet
Qing Imperial Administration: the Tributary System
Domestic Administration: Central and Local Government
The Economy of an Empire: Agriculture, Commerce, and Taxation
Conclusions
Chinese Society at the Zenith of the Qing Dynasty
Manchu and Han Society
The Four Social Groups: Scholars, Peasants, Artisans, and Merchants
The Legal System
Confucianism as an Ideology
Shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism as Instruments of Manchu Rule
Conclusions
The Foundations of Knowledge
Fidelity to the Past
The Confucian Classics
Thinking by Historical Analogy
Understanding the Natural World
The Examination System
Conclusions
The Arrival of the West
Early Explorers
The Maritime Advance: Portugal, Spain, Holland, and England
The Continental Advance: Russia
The Legal and Religious Sources of Cultural Conflict
The Technological Revolution
Conclusions
Systemic Crisis and Dynastic Decline
Government Corruption and Manchu Decadence
Population Growth, Ethnic Tensions, and the Miao Revolt
The White Lotus Rebellion and the Eight Trigrams Revolt
Imperial Overextension
Qing Attempts to Restore Governmental Efficacy
Conclusions
Expanding Commercial Relations with the West
The Tea Trade and the Silver Inflow
The Opium Trade and the Silver Outflow
The British Rejection of Sinification
Chinese Strategy and the First Opium War
The Treaty of Nanjing: Treaty Ports, Tariffs, and North South Tensions
Conclusions
Dynastic Decline and Collapse, 1842���1911
Civil War and Foreign Intervention
North South Tensions and the Origins of the Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Movement
The Taiping Capital in Nanjing
The Arrow War
Manchu Western Cooperation to Destroy the Taipings
Conclusions
Quelling Domestic Rebellions
The Rise of the Empress Dowager Cixi
The Nian Rebellion (1851 68)
The Panthay Rebellion (1855 73)
The Donggan Rebellion (1862 73)
The Muslim Rebellion in Xinjiang (1862 78)
Conclusions
The Self-strengthening Movement and Central Government Reforms
Military Reform: Xiang and Huai Armies, Beiyang and Nanyang Navies
Financial Reform: the Imperial Maritime Customs
Foreign Policy Reform: the Zongli Yamen
Educational Reform: China's First Embassy and Western Learning
Governmental Restoration: Confucian Rectification
Conclusions
Attacks on Chinese Sovereignty
The Burlingame Mission and the Alcock Convention
The Tianjin Massacre (1870) and the Margary Affair (1875)
Japan and Taiwan (1871 4)
Russia and Xinjiang (1871 81)
France and Vietnam (1883 5)
Conclusions
The First Sino-Japanese War
The Korean Crisis
The Hostilities
The Settlement
The Triple Intervention
The Scramble for Concessions
Conclusions
The Attempt to Expel the Foreigners: the Boxer Uprising
The Hundred Days' Reform
The Origins of the Boxer Movement
The Boxer Uprising
The Boxer Protocol and the Economic Impact of the Indemnities
The Aftermath: the Russo-Japanese War (1904 5)
Conclusions
The 1911 Revolution
The Reform Program of the Empress Dowager Cixi
Han Revolutionaries: Sun Yat-sen's Anti-Manchu Movement
The Rights Recovery Movement
The New Army and the Wuchang Rebellion
The Collapse of the Qing Dynasty
Conclusions
The Republican Period, 1912
The Founding of the Republic of China
The Republic under Yuan Shikai
Relations with Russia, Japan, and Britain
The Founding of the Nationalist Party
North China Warlord Intrigues
The Republic of China Enters the First World War
Conclusions
Versailles and Its Aftermath
Political Ferment and New Ideas
The Paris Peace Conference Examines the Shandong Question
The Shandong Controversy
The Beijing Government's Reaction to the Compromise
The Long-term Impact of the Treaty of Versailles
Conclusions
New Intellectual Currents
The New Culture Movement
The May Fourth Movement
The Karakhan Manifesto and the Comintern
The Founding of the Chinese Communist Party
The Civil Wars in North China
Conclusions
The Nationalist-Communist United Front
South China Diplomacy: the Origins of the First United Front
The Reorganization of the Nationalist Party
North China Diplomacy: Beijing and Manchurian Warlords
The Rise of Chiang Kai-shek and the Northern Expedition
The Beginning of the Nationalist-Communist Civil War
Conclusions
The Nanjing Decade
Elimination of the Unequal Treaties with the Western Powers
The Russo-Japanese Rivalry Over Manchuria
The Military Side of Nation Building: Uprisings and Encirclement Campaigns
The Civil Side of Nation Building: Nationalist and Communist Ideology
The Xi'an Incident and the Second United Front
Conclusions
The Second Sino-Japanese War
Great Power Rivalries Over China
The Regional War and the Civil War
The Global War
Soviet Efforts to Expand Their Sphere of Influence
Impact on the Chinese Population
Conclusions
The Civil War: Nationalists versus Communists
Renewal of the Civil War
U.S. Diplomatic Intervention
Soviet Intervention
The Nationalist Economic Implosion
The Communist Victory
Conclusions
China and Taiwan in the Postwar Era
The Communist Victory
The Formation of the People's Republic of China
Land Reform and Agrarian Policies
The Nationalization of Industry and Commerce
Diplomatic Isolation and the Sino-Soviet Alliance
Land Reform on Taiwan
Conclusions
The Korean War
The Outbreak of the Korean War
The Chinese Decision to Intervene
The Soviet War Protraction Strategy
War Termination
The Domestic Consequences of the War
Conclusions
Mao's Quest for World Leadership
The Hundred Flowers Campaign
The Great Leap Forward
The Great Famine (1959 61)
The Sino-Soviet Split
The Sino-Indian War of 1962
Conclusions
The Cultural Revolution
Mao's Weakened Position
The Phases of the Cultural Revolution
The PLA and the Restoration of Order
The 1969 Sino-Soviet Border Conflict
Sino-American Rapprochement
Conclusions
The Deng Xiaoping Restoration
The Impending Succession, the Fall of Lin Biao, and the Death of Mao
The Rise to Power of Deng Xiaoping
The Taiwanese Economic Miracle
Deng Xaoping's Agricultural Reforms
Deng Xiaoping's Industrial Reforms
Conclusions
Tiananmen
The Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Tiananmen Demonstrations
The Beijing Massacre
Governance without a Preeminent Leader
Rising Nationalism
Conclusions
The Mandate of Heaven
Population and Prosperity
Environmental Challenges
Energy and Industrial Growth
Democracy in Taiwan
The Two-China Problem
Conclusions
Conclusion China in Transition
Top-down Characteristics: Civil-Military-Ideological Underpinnings of Power
Radial Characteristics: Relations with the Outside
Bottom-up Characteristics: Education, Globalization, and Han Nationalism
Cyclical Elements: the End of the Dynastic Cycle?
Retrospective Elements: Fatalism or Choice?
Final Words
Geographical Names by Transliteration System
Pinyin Wade Giles Conversion Table
Teaching References
Credits
Name Index
Subject Index
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