Elementary Statistics in Criminal Justice Research

ISBN-10: 0132987309
ISBN-13: 9780132987301
Edition: 4th 2014
List price: $156.20 Buy it from $71.79
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Description: An accessible introduction to statistics in the criminal justice field. Elementary Statistics in Criminal Justice Research, Fourth Edition, provides an introduction to statistics for students in criminal justice and criminology. Created  More...

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Book details

List price: $156.20
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 3/1/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.760
Language: English

An accessible introduction to statistics in the criminal justice field. Elementary Statistics in Criminal Justice Research, Fourth Edition, provides an introduction to statistics for students in criminal justice and criminology. Created specifically for students who many not have strong backgrounds in mathematics, the text focuses primarily on the statistical theories and methods that criminal justice students need to understand. This text was adapted from the best-selling Elementary Statistics in Social Research, and provides broad and accessible coverage that will appeal to students and instructors alike.

Preface
Why the Criminal Justice Researcher Uses Statistics
The Nature of Criminal Justice Research
The Experiment
The Quasi-Experiment
The Survey
Meta-Analysis
Other Methods
Major Data Sources in Criminology and Criminal Justice
Surveys
Police Reports
Why Test Hypotheses?
The Stages of Criminal Justice Research
Using Series of Numbers to Do Criminal Justice Research
The Nominal Level
The Ordinal Level
The Interval (and Ratio) Level
Treating Ordinal Data as Interval
Further Measurement Issues
Functions of Statistics
Description
Decision Making
An Important Note about Rounding
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey
Description
Organizing the Data
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
Comparing Distributions
Proportions and Percentages
Rates
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
The Midpoint
Guidelines for Constructing Class Intervals
Cumulative Distributions
Dealing with Decimal Data
Flexible Class Intervals
Cross-Tabulations
Graphic Presentations
Pie Charts
Bar Graphs and Histograms
Frequency Polygons
The Shape of a Frequency Distribution
Line Chart
Maps
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode
The Median
The Mean
Taking One Step at a Time
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
Level of Measurement
Shape of the Distribution
Research Objective
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Measures of Variability
The Range
The Variance and the Standard Deviation
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution
Coefficient of Variation
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation
Comparing Measures of Variability
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data
From Description to Decision Making
Probability and the Normal Curve
Rules of Probability
Probability Distributions
The Difference between Probability Distributions and Frequency Distributions
Mean and Standard Deviation of a Probability Distribution
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
The Area under the Normal Curve
Clarifying the Standard Deviation
Using Table A
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
Finding Scores from Probability Based on the Normal Curve
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Samples and Populations
Errors in the Conduct of Research
Sampling Methods
Sampling Error
Sampling Distribution of Means
Characteristics of a Sampling Distribution of Means
The Sampling Distribution of Means as a Normal Curve
Standard Error of the Mean
Confidence Intervals
The t Distribution
Estimating Proportions
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations
Decision Making
Testing Differences Between Means
Testing the Difference between Sample and Population Means
Testing the Difference between Two Sample Means
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
Levels of Significance
Choosing a Level of Significance
What Is the Difference between P and �?
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
Testing the Difference between Means
Comparing Dependent Samples
Two Sample Test of Proportions
One-Tailed Tests
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Analysis of Variance
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
The Sum of Squares
A Research illustration
Computing Sums of Squares
Mean Square
The F Ratio
A Multiple Comparison of Means
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Nonparametric Tests of Significance
One-Way Chi-Square Test
Two-Way Chi-Square Test
Finding the Expected Frequencies
Comparing Several Groups
Correcting for Small Expected Frequencies
Requirements for the Use of Two-Way Chi-Square
The Median Test
Requirements for the Use of the Median Test
Mann-Whitney U Test
Requirements for the Use of the Mann-Whitney U Test
Kruskal-Wallis Test
Requirements for the Use of the Kruskal-Wallis Test
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences
From Decision Making to Association
Correlation
Strength of Correlation
Direction of Correlation
Curvilinear Correlation
The Correlation Coefficient
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
A Computational Formula for Pearson's r
Testing the Significance of Pearson's r
A Simplified Method for Testing the Significance of r
Requirements for the Use of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
The Importance of Scatter Plots
Partial Correlation
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Regression Analysis
The Regression Model
Requirements for Regression
Interpreting the Regression Line
Prediction Errors
The Least Squares Criterion
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
Regression and Analysis of Variance
Multiple Regression*
Dummy Variables
Interaction Terms
Multicollinearity
Logistic Regression
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Dealing with Tied Ranks
Testing the Significance of the Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Requirements for Using the Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
Testing the Significance of Gamma
Requirements for Using Gamma
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 � 2 Table
Testing the Significance of Phi
Requirements for Using the Phi Coefficient
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 � 2 Tables
Testing the Significance of the Contingency Coefficient
Requirements for Using the Contingency Coefficient
An Alternative to the Contingency Coefficient
Summary
Questions and Problems
Computer Exercises
Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association
Applying Statistics
Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems
Research Situations
Research Solutions
Using SPSS and the General Social Survey
StatCrunch™ Data Analysis on the Web
Tables
A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
List of Formulas
Glossary
Solutions to Problems
Index

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