Elementary Surveying An Introduction to Geomatics

ISBN-10: 0132554348
ISBN-13: 9780132554343
Edition: 13th 2012
List price: $208.00
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Description: Elementary Surveying, 13e, is ideal for Surveying courses offered in Civil Engineering departments. This highly readable, best-selling text presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying  More...

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Book details

List price: $208.00
Edition: 13th
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 12/29/2010
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 984
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.454

Elementary Surveying, 13e, is ideal for Surveying courses offered in Civil Engineering departments. This highly readable, best-selling text presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. Its depth and breadth are ideal for self-study. The 13th Edition is updated throughout to reflect the latest advances and technology.

Introduction
Definition of Surveying
Geomatics
History of Surveying
Geodetic and Plane Surveys
Importance of Surveying
Specialized Types of Surveys
Surveying Safety
Land and Geographic Information Systems
Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies
The Surveying Profession
Professional Surveying Organizations
Surveying on the Internet
Future Challenges in Surveying
Problems
Bibliography
Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes
Units and Significant Figures
Introduction
Units of Measurement
International System of Units (SI)
Significant Figures
Rounding Off Numbers
Field Notes
Field Notes
General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes
Types of Field Books
Kinds of Notes
Arrangements of Notes
Suggestions for Recording Notes
Introduction to Data Collectors
Transfer of Files from Data Collectors
Digital Data File Management
Advantages and Disadvantages of Data Collectors
Problems
Bibliography
Theory of Errors in Observations
Introduction
Direct and Indirect Observations
Errors in Measurements
Mistakes
Sources of Errors in Making Observations
Types of Errors
Precision and Accuracy
Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors
Probability
Most Probable Value
Residuals
Occurrence of Random Errors
General Laws of Probability
Measures of Precision
Interpretation of Standard Deviation
The 50, 90, and 95 Percent Errors
Error Propagation
Applications
Conditional Adjustment of Observations
Weights of Observations
Least-Squares Adjustment
Using Software
Problems
Bibliography
Leveling���Theory, Methods, and Equipment
Leveling���Theory and Methods
Introduction
Definitions
North American Vertical Datum
Curvature and Refraction
Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation
Equipment for Differential Leveling
Categories of Levels
Telescopes
Level Vials
Tilting Levels
Automatic Levels
Digital Levels
Tripods
Hand Level
Level Rods
Testing and Adjusting Levels
Problems
Bibliography
Leveling���Field Procedures and Computations
Introduction
Carrying and Setting Up a Level
Duties of a Rodperson
Differential Leveling
Precision
Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits
Reciprocal Leveling
Three-Wire Leveling
Profile Leveling
Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling
Use of the Hand Level
Sources of Error in Leveling
Mistakes
Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes
Using Software
Problems
Bibliography
Distance Measurement
Methods for Measuring Distances
Introduction
Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements
Pacing
Odometer Readings
Optical Rangefinders
Tacheometry
Subtense Bar
Distance Measurements by Taping
Introduction to Taping
Taping Equipment and Accessories
Care of Taping Equipment
Taping on Level Ground
Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground
Slope Measurements
Sources of Error in Taping
Tape Problems
Combined Corrections in a Taping Problem
Electronic Distance Measurement
Introduction
Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy
Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement
Electro-Optical Instruments
Total Station Instruments
EDM Instruments Without Reflectors
Computing Horizontal Lengths from Slope Distances
Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement
Using Software
Problems
Bibliography
Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings
Introduction
Units of Angle Measurement
Kinds of Horizontal Angles
Direction of a Line
Azimuths
Bearings
Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings
Computing Azimuths
Computing Bearings
The Compass and the Earth's Magnetic Field
Magnetic Declination
Variations in Magnetic Declination
Software for Determining Magnetic Declination
Local Attraction
Typical Magnetic Declination Problems
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations
Total Station Instruments
Introduction
Characteristics of Total Station Instruments
Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments
Parts of a Total Station Instrument
Handling and Setting Up a Total Station Instrument
Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments
Angle Observations
Relationship of Angles and Distances
Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments
Observing Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method
Closing the Horizon
Observing Deflection Angles
Observing Azimuths
Observing Vertical Angles
Sights and Marks
Prolonging a Straight Line
Balancing-In
Random Traverse
Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences
Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and Their Accessories
Sources of Error in Total Station Work
Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Traversing
Introduction
Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions
Observation of Traverse Lengths
Selection of Traverse Stations
Referencing Traverse Stations
Traverse Field Notes
Angle Misclosure
Traversing with Total Station Instruments
Radial Traversing
Sources of Error in Traversing
Mistakes in Traversing
Problems
Traverse Computations
Introduction
Balancing Angles
Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings
DePartures and Latitudes
DeParture and Latitude Closure Conditions
Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision
Traverse Adjustment
Rectangular Coordinates
Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations
Inversing
Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions
Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys
Use of Open Traverses
State Plane Coordinate Systems
Traverse Computations Using Computers
Locating Blunders in Traverse Observations
Mistakes in Traverse Computations
Problems
Bibliography
Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations
Introduction
Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles
Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line
Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions
Intersection of a Line with a Circle
Intersection of Two Circles
Three-Point Resection
Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
Inaccessible Point Problem
Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection
Software
Problems
Bibliography
Area
Introduction
Methods of Measuring Area
Area by Division Into Simple Figures
Area by Offsets from Straight Lines
Area by Coordinates
Area by Double-Meridian Distance Method
Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries
Partitioning of Lands
Area by Measurements from Maps
Software
Sources of Error in Determining Areas
Mistakes in Determining Areas
Problems
Bibliography
Global Navigation Satellite Systems Introduction and Principles of Operation
Introduction
Overview of GPS
The GPS Signal
Reference Coordinate Systems
Fundamentals of Satellite Positioning
Errors in Observations
Differential Positioning
Kinematic Methods
Relative Positioning
Other Satellite Navigation Systems
The Future
Problems
Bibliography
Global Navigation Satellite Systems Static Surveys
Introduction
Field Procedures in Satellite Surveys
Planning Satellite Surveys
Performing Static Surveys
Data Processing and Analysis
Sources of Errors in Satellite Surveys
Mistakes in Satellite Surveys
Problems
Bibliography
Global Navigation Satellite Systems Kinematic Surveys
Introduction
Planning of Kinematic Surveys
Initialization
Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys
Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys
Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys
Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
Real-Time Networks
Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys
Machine Control
Errors in Kinematic Surveys
Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys
Problems
Bibliography
Adjustments by Least Squares
Introduction
Fundamental Condition of Least Squares
Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method
Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment
Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities
Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits
Propagation of Errors
Least-Squares Adjustment of GNSS Baseline Vectors
Least-Squares Adjustment of Conventional Horizontal Plane Surveys
The Error Ellipse
Adjustment Procedures
Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations
Software
Conclusions
Problems
Bibliography
Mapping Surveys
Introduction
Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys
Map Scale
Control for Mapping Surveys
Contours
Characteristics of Contours
Direct and Indirect Methods of Locating Contours
Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems
Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details
Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
Selection of Field Method
Working with Data Collectors and Field-to-Finish Software
Hydrographic Surveys
Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys
Mistakes in Mapping Surveys
Problems
Bibliography
Mapping
Introduction
Availability of Maps and Related Information
National Mapping Program
Accuracy Standards for Mapping
Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures
Map Design
Map Layout
Basic Map Plotting Procedures
Contour Interval
Plotting Contours
Lettering
Cartographic Map Elements
Drafting Materials
Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems
Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping
Sources of Error in Mapping
Mistakes in Mapping
Problems
Bibliography
Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
Introduction
The Ellipsoid and Geoid
The Conventional Terrestrial Pole
Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature
Geoid Undulation and Deflection of the Vertical
U.S. Reference Frames
Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys
The National Spatial Reference System
Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network
Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network
Control Point Descriptions
Field Procedures for Traditional Horizontal Control Surveys
Field Procedures for Vertical Control Surveys
Reduction of Field Observations to Their Geodetic Values
Geodetic Position Computations
The Local Geodetic Coordinate System
Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations
Software
Problems
Bibliography
State Plane Coordinates and Other Map Projections
Introduction
Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems
Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
Transverse Mercator Projection
State Plane Coordinates in NAD27 and NAD83
Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System
Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System
Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids
Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations
Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another
Conversions Between SPCS27 and SPCS83
The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection
Other Map Projections
Map Projection Software
Problems
Bibliography
Boundary Surveys
Introduction
Categories of Land Surveys
Historical Perspectives
Property Description by Metes and Bounds
Property Description by Block-and-Lot System
Property Description by Coordinates
Retracement Surveys
Subdivision Surveys
Partitioning Land
Registration of Title
Adverse Possession and Easements
Condominium Surveys
Geographic and Land Information Systems
Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Surveys of the Public Lands
Introduction
Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands
Initial Point
Principal Meridian
Baseline
Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)
Guide Meridians
Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines
Designation of Townships
Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships
Subdivision of a Township into Sections
Subdivision of Sections
Fractional Sections
Notes
Outline of Subdivision Steps
Marking Corners
Witness Corners
Meander Corners
Lost and Obliterated Corners
Accuracy of Public Lands Surveys
Descriptions by Township Section and Smaller Subdivision
BLM Land Information System
Sources of Error
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Construction Surveys
Introduction
Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys
Horizontal and Vertical Control
Staking Out a Pipeline
Staking Pipeline Grades
Staking Out a Building
Staking Out Highways
Other Construction Surveys
Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments
Construction Surveys Using GNSS Equipment
Machine Guidance and Control
As-Built Surveys with Laser Scanning
Sources of Error in Construction Surveys
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Horizontal Curves
Introduction
Degree of Circular Curve
Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas
Circular Curve Stationing
General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles
Computing Deflection Angles and Chords
Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
Setups on Curve
Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords
Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve
Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates
Curve Stakeout Using GNSS Receivers and Robotic Total Stations
Circular Curve Layout by Offsets
Special Circular Curve Problems
Compound and Reverse Curves
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
Spirals
Computation of "As-Built" Circular Alignments
Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Vertical Curves
Introduction
General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve
Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve
High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent Offset Equation
Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola
Curve Computations by Proportion
Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve
Machine Control in Grading Operations
Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve
Designing a Curve to Pass Through a Fixed Point
Sight Distance
Sources of Error in Laying Out Vertical Curves
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Volumes
Introduction
Methods of Volume Measurement
The Cross-Section Method
Types of Cross Sections
Average-End-Area Formula
Determining End Areas
Computing Slope Intercepts
Prismoidal Formula
Volume Computations
Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method
Contour-Area Method
Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge
Software
Sources of Error in Determining Volumes
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Photogrammetry
Introduction
Uses of Photogrammetry
Aerial Cameras
Types of Aerial Photographs
Vertical Aerial Photographs
Scale of a Vertical Photograph
Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph
Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph
Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph
Stereoscopic Parallax
Stereoscopic Viewing
Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax
Analytical Photogrammetry
Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments
Orthophotos
Ground Control for Photogrammetry
Flight Planning
Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems
Remote Sensing
Software
Sources of Error in Photogrammetry
Mistakes
Problems
Bibliography
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
Introduction
Land Information Systems
GIS Data Sources and Classifications
Spatial Data
Nonspatial Data
Data Format Conversions
Creating GIS Databases
Metadata
GIS Analytical Functions
GIS Applications
Data Sources
Problems
Bibliography
Dumpy Levels, Transits, And Theodolites
Example Noteforms
Astronomical Observations
Using the Worksheets From the Companion Website
Introduction to Matrices
U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters
Answers to Selected Problems
Index

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