Grading

ISBN-10: 013221721X
ISBN-13: 9780132217217
Edition: 2nd 2009
List price: $46.20
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Book details

List price: $46.20
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/9/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 224
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.836
Language: English

Understanding Grading
Introduction
Key Concepts
Why Grading
Purposes for Grading
Definitions of Terms
Grading
Achievement
Validity
Reliability
Organization
Self-Reflection: Now and Later
Exercises
Grading in Its Contexts
Key Concepts
The Historical Context of Grading
Grading at Universities, 1640s to 1800s
Grading in the Common School, 1800s
1890 to 1920
1920 to 1930
1930 to 1960
1960 to 1980
1980 to 2000
2000 to the Present
Current Context of Grading
Social Context of Grading
Legal Context of Grading
Confidentiality
Grade Penalties
Appeals Policies and Due Process
Educator Responsibilities
Conclusion
Exercises
The Educational Psychology of Grading
Key Concepts
Student Perceptions
Influence of Grading Practices on Motivation to Learn
Attribution Theory
Goal Orientations
Self-Worth Theory
Function of Feedback to Students
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Formative Assessment as Feedback for Learning
The Classroom Assessment Environment
Conclusion
Exercises
Part 1 Exercises
Integrating Assessment and Instruction
Designing Assessments That Reflect Intentions for Learning
Key Concepts
Matching Assessment and Instruction
Paper-and-Pencil Tests
Novel Applications Are Required to Tap Higher Order Thinking
Performance Assessments
Scoring Is Part of the Match
Tests
Performance Assessments
Conclusion
Exercises
Deciding on the Bases for Grading
Key Concepts
Formative and Summative Evaluation
Bases for Grading
Kinds of Grading Schemes
Points or Percents
Rubrics
Assessment Versus Grading
Conclusion
Exercises
Providing Grades and Other Feedback to Students
Key Concepts
Providing Informative Feedback
Student Involvement in Assessment
Creating Grading Criteria
Applying Criteria to Their Own and Peers' Work
Going Over Test Results
Grading Is a Skill
Exemplars
More Practice
Fourth-Grade "Dogs and Cats" Essays
High School English Essays
Grading Tests
Grading Term Papers, Written Reports, and Projects
Conclusion
Exercises
Part 2 Exercises
Combining Grades Into Marks for Report Cards
Grading Policies and Formats
Key Concepts
Grades Should Reflect Achievement
Report Card Formats
Physical Characteristics
Administrative Policy
Instructional Targets
Grading Policies
Grade-Point Averages
Self-Reflection Is Critical
Conclusion
Exercises
Developmental Concerns in Grading
Key Concepts
Grading in Special Education
Adapting Methods of Arriving at Report Card Grades
Adapting Reporting Mechanisms for Students with Special Needs
Adapting Grades for Individual Assignments
Providing Feedback to Students with Special Needs
Grading in Early Childhood
Grading in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms
Conclusion
Exercises
Developing Skills at Combining Grades into Marks for Report Cards
Key Concepts
Arriving at a Categorical Grade
Arriving at a Letter Grade via Rubrics
The Median Method for Calculating Report Card Grades
Combining Percent Scores and Rubrics or Grades
Arriving at a Letter Grade via Points
Letter Grades as Averages of Percentage Grades
Letter Grades as Percentage of Total Possible Points
The Influence of Zeros in Point-Based Grading
Reviewing Borderline Grades
Electronic Methods: Gradebook Packages, Web-Based Systems
Conclusion
Exercises
Other Ways of Communicating About Student Achievement
Key Concepts
Sending Work Home
A Communication Process
Portfolios
Set a Purpose
Plan the Logistics
Collect the Evidence
Interpret the Evidence
Communicate the Information and Listen to the Response
Strengths and Weaknesses
Narratives
Set a Purpose
Plan the Logistics and Collect the Evidence
Interpret the Evidence and Communicate the Information
Listen to the Response
Strengths and Weaknesses
Parent-Teacher, Student-Teacher, or Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences
Set a Purpose
Plan the Logistics
Collect the Evidence
Interpret the Evidence, Communicate the Information, and Listen to the Response
Strengths and Weaknesses
Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-Teacher Conferences
Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences
Conclusion
Exercises
Part 3 Exercises
Test Blueprints
Do's and Don'ts for Writing Good Test Items
Alternative Assessment Checklist
Key for Sample Papers from Chapter 6
References
Index

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